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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| January-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 9, 2012

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Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level
S. M. J. Mortazavi, S Vazife-Doost, M Yaghooti, S Mehdizadeh, A Rajaie-Far
January-June 2012, 3(1):60-64
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95958  PMID:22690053
Objectives : Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group). Materials and Methods : In this case-control study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:30-9:30 a.m.) and after work (11:30-12:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits). Results : The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 ± 110.70 (mean ± SD) whereas it was 157.77 ± 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 ± 67.91 (mean ± SD) while it was 88.58 ± 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 ± 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 ± 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001). Conclusions : As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations.
  17 3,775 413
Hypokalemic quadriparesis: An unusual manifestation of dengue fever
Manish Gutch, Avinash Agarwal, Amrendra Amar
January-June 2012, 3(1):81-83
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95976  PMID:22690057
Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne, arboviral infection found in tropical and sub-tropical climates. Clinical presentation varies from a severe flu-like illness to a potentially lethal dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue has been regarded as a nonneurotropic virus. However, there are reports describing neurological involvements in dengue virus infection. The neurological involvement in dengue virus infection includes encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome. The neurological spectrum of dengue patients has been limited because of small number of case reports, paucity of imaging, and neurophysiologic studies. There are only a few isolated case reports and case series documenting acute pure motor quadriparesis in dengue fever. We report acute pure motor reversible quadriparesis due to hypokalemia. Clinicians in the endemic area should be aware of such association of acute pure motor reversible quadriparesis with dengue fever
  12 3,700 389
Sino nasal undifferentiated carcinoma: A rare entity
Richa Goel, Karthikeyan Ramalingam, Pratibha Ramani, Thiruvengadam Chandrasekar
January-June 2012, 3(1):101-104
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95986  PMID:22690063
Malignant neoplasms of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity are rare, comprising only 3% of all head and neck malignancies. This includes both primary sinonasal neoplasms and metastatic disease. We present the case of a patient with a maxillary soft tissue swelling, which proved to be a rare malignant tumor of maxillary sinus origin, a sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma
  9 3,238 446
Relationship between lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in trimesters of pregnancy in Nigerian women: Is pregnancy a risk factor?
Emeka E Neboh, John K Emeh, Uzo U Aniebue, Ebele J Ikekpeazu, Ignatius C Maduka, Frank O Ezeugwu
January-June 2012, 3(1):32-37
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95944  PMID:22690048
Background: Changes in lipid metabolism have been shown to occur during pregnancy, to ensure a continuous supply of nutrients to the growing fetus, despite intermittent maternal food intake. Abnormal lipid metabolism has also been linked to atherosclerosis. Objective: To investigate the effect of pregnancy on the lipid profile and possible predisposition of pregnant Nigerian women to atherosclerosis. Settings and Design: Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels of 60 apparently healthy pregnant women aged between 25 and 45 years, attending the antenatal clinic of the U.N.T.H, Enugu and 60 apparently healthy non-pregnant, age-matched females (controls) were estimated. The test samples were collected from each subject at each of the trimesters. Materials and Methods: Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride (TG) were analyzed using enzymatic/spectrophotometric methods while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were calculated using Friedewald's formula. Statistical analysis used: The data obtained were analyzed with Students' t-test and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation, using graph pad prism software program and results expressed as mean ± SD. The level of significance was determined at 95% confidence level. Results and Conclusion: The serum lipid levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in all the trimesters of the pregnant women than in the controls. There was a steady increase in the serum lipid levels with increasing gestational age. A significant positive correlation (P<0.05) was observed between the lipid fractions and the different trimesters of pregnancy. TC/HDL was decreased significantly (P<0.05) in pregnant women, with increasing gestational age. Cardiac risk factor, however, decreased with gestational age, signifying possible protection from atherosclerosis. A comparison of two age groups of pregnant women (25-34 years and 35-45 years) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in all the lipid fractions studied, suggesting no possible age-related effect on lipid metabolism in the women in their first trimester. Even with significant increase in plasma lipid during pregnancy, normal pregnancy in Nigerian women does not appear to increase the risk.
  8 3,217 479
Assessment of future physicians on biomedical waste management in a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal
Mausumi Basu, Palash Das, Ranabir Pal
January-June 2012, 3(1):38-42
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95945  PMID:22690049
Background : One-fourths of the biomedical waste (BMW) is regarded as hazardous with the potential for significant health concern for both medical personnel and general community. So, awareness about various aspects of BMW management is required and it was assessed among junior doctors in a tertiary care hospital. Objectives : To assess the knowledge and awareness about various aspects of BMW management among junior doctors (future physicians) and thus help the authority to develop the strategy for improving the situation in future. Materials and methods: In this descriptive observational study, we interviewed 200 junior doctors of a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata using a pre-designed pre-tested self-administered, semi-structured, anonymous questionnaire. Results : Majority of the participants were in the age group of 22 to 24 years (62%), males (66.5%), hostelites (70.2%), belonged to nuclear family (80.1%), and had per capita monthly family income in the range of Rs 5 000 to 20 000 (61.4%). Almost all respondents (99.1%) heard about BMW, 94.4% heard about the BMW rule 1998, and 67.9% knew about the Bio Hazard symbol. Only 55.9% respondents could remember the ten category of BMW. Segregation at source (the golden rule of BMW) was known by 78.8% of the junior doctors, only 29.5% had the knowledge of various methods of final disposal of BMW. Though 98.8% of the study population was aware that improper management of BMW causes different health problems, only 76.4% knew about various types of color-coded bags for collection of BMW. All the junior doctors were trained in all these essential aspects of BMW in their undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion : Still, intensive training program and monitoring at regular time interval is needed for all staff, with special emphasis on junior doctors.
  8 4,391 680
Role of phenylthiocarbamide as a genetic marker in predicting the predisposition of disease traits in humans
HS Shivaprasad, PT Chaithra, P Kavitha, Suttur S Malini
January-June 2012, 3(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95946  PMID:22690050
The main objective of this study is to find out the genetic variation and predisposition of overweight/obese, smoking/alcoholism and thyroid disease traits among tasters and non-tasters in Mysore population, South India. Bitter-taste perception for phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) is a classically variable trait both within and between human populations. Many studies have reported that in world population, approximately 30% of them are PTC non-tasters and 70% are tasters. This investigation was conducted during the year 2009-2010 involving a total 1352 study subjects and divided into three different groups, considering the age ranging from 13 to 50 years. Phenylthiocarbamide taste sensitivity was measured by administering a freshly prepared 0.025% of phenylthiocarbamide solution using the Harris and Kalmus method with a slight modification and the results were recorded. In the first group of 100 obese/overweight children, 28% are taster and 72% are non-taster and among 100 control group 67% are tasters and 43% are non-tasters. In second group, out of 1152 individuals 710 (61.63%) are tasters and 442 (38.37%) are non-tasters including both males and females. In the third group, out of each 100 thyroid patients and the control group, tasters are significantly more frequent (61.41%) than the non-tasters (38.58%) in the control group, but a higher proportion of non-tasters are recorded among individuals with thyroid problems (68%) compared to tasters (32%). There is a significant higher incidence of PTC tasters than non-tasters among general population in this study. As phenotypic variation in PTC sensitivity is genetic in origin, this may represent a surrogate risk factor for the development of multifactorial disease and disorders.
  6 3,927 536
Postprandial lipemia in pre- and postmenopausal women
Gaffar S Zaman, Sajida Rahman, Jalelur Rahman
January-June 2012, 3(1):65-70
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95961  PMID:22690054
Background and Objective : The increased risk for coronary artery disease observed in postmenopausal (PoW) women is partly explained by a more atherogenic lipoprotein profile. Moreover, natural menopause has been associated with an altered postprandial lipid profile. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that young premenopausal (PrW) and PoW may be independently associated with postprandial lipemia and indirectly associated with atherosclerosis. Patients and Methods : A total of 46 healthy PrW and 44 healthy PoW participated in a 5-h intervention study. Blood samples were taken at the baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after eating. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, fasting, and postprandial triglycerides (PPTG) were determined sequentially in blood samples. Results : PPTG presented significant higher values in PoW compared to PrW (P < 0.05), but other lipids did not significantly differ between groups. PPTG concentrations in PoW were significantly higher than in PrW (P < 0.05). There was a significant time influence (P < 0.05) in TG in PrW and PoW, while time to peak and peak concentration were significantly higher in PoW than PrW. Other lipids were also decreased more in PrW than PoW, but not significantly so. Cholesterol concentrations showed a significant reduction after 2 h, to reach values similar to the baseline after 4 h in PrW but not in PoW. HDL-cholesterol concentration was decreased more in PoW compared to PrW but it was not significant. Conclusions : Lipid postprandial response indicates a higher cardiovascular risk pattern in PoW compared to PrW.
  6 2,623 330
Ethnicity, obesity and health pattern among Indian population
NK Mungreiphy, Meenal Dhall, Renu Tyagi, Kiran Saluja, Aniket Kumar, Mary Grace Tungdim, Rashmi Sinha, KS Rongmei, Kajri Tandon, Shaila Bhardwaj, Anup Kumar Kapoor, Satwanti Kapoor
January-June 2012, 3(1):52-59
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95955  PMID:22690052
Objective: To study the relationship of ethnicity with overweight/obesity, variation in adiposity levels, regional distribution of fat and its impact on cardio-respiratory health among selected ethnic groups. Materials and methods : A cross-sectional study was carried out among 300 young adults of three ethnic groups from different geographical regions of India ranging in age from 20 to 30 years. Stature, weight, circumferences, body fat percentage, and skinfold thicknesses were measured. Obesity indices like body mass index (BMI), grand mean thickness (GMT), waist hip ratio (WHR), waist height ratio (WHtR), and conicity index (CI) were computed. Cardio-respiratory health indicators such as lung functions including forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1.0 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory ratio (FER), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), breath holding time (BHT), and systolic and diastolic BP (blood pressure) were taken and associated with obesity indices. Results: General body fat deposition, assessed by BMI, GMT, and fat percentage, was found to be the highest among Delhi females and males. However, central adiposity as assessed from WHR, WHtR, and CI was found to be significantly higher among the Manipur subjects signifying a relatively more androidal pattern of fat deposition. Most of the inter-group differences for adiposity indices were significant; however, it was not so in the case of blood pressure among different ethnic groups. On the other hand, the respiratory efficiency varied significantly between different ethnic groups. Ethnicity, adiposity, and cardio-respiratory health were found to be interrelated. Conclusions: Subjects belonging to three ethnic groups showed marked differences in different body dimension, adiposity indices, and cardio-respiratory health. Central obesity has been found to be a better pointer for cardiovascular health risk. There were ethnic and gender differences with respect to adiposity measures and cardio-respiratory health indicators
  5 4,140 575
A rare case of mucopolysaccharidosis: Hunter syndrome
Prathima Gajula, Karthikeyan Ramalingam, Dinesh Bhadrashetty
January-June 2012, 3(1):97-100
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95984  PMID:22690062
We report a rare case of Hunter syndrome-mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) with atypical presentation of mild mental retardation, acrocephalic head without corneal clouding, and multiple skin eruptions along with oral, dental, and radiographic findings. It is a rare syndrome with a very low prevalence of 1:100,000 births and as such the clinician should be aware of this syndrome.
  4 4,242 526
Voice - How humans communicate?
Manjul Tiwari, Maneesha Tiwari
January-June 2012, 3(1):3-11
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95933  PMID:22690044
Voices are important things for humans. They are the medium through which we do a lot of communicating with the outside world: our ideas, of course, and also our emotions and our personality. The voice is the very emblem of the speaker, indelibly woven into the fabric of speech. In this sense, each of our utterances of spoken language carries not only its own message but also, through accent, tone of voice and habitual voice quality it is at the same time an audible declaration of our membership of particular social regional groups, of our individual physical and psychological identity, and of our momentary mood. Voices are also one of the media through which we (successfully, most of the time) recognize other humans who are important to us-members of our family, media personalities, our friends, and enemies. Although evidence from DNA analysis is potentially vastly more eloquent in its power than evidence from voices, DNA cannot talk. It cannot be recorded planning, carrying out or confessing to a crime. It cannot be so apparently directly incriminating. As will quickly become evident, voices are extremely complex things, and some of the inherent limitations of the forensic-phonetic method are in part a consequence of the interaction between their complexity and the real world in which they are used. It is one of the aims of this article to explain how this comes about. This subject have unsolved questions, but there is no direct way to present the information that is necessary to understand how voices can be related, or not, to their owners.
  3 4,155 600
A rare case of gliomatosis cerebri presenting as dementia
Manish Gutch, MK Ansari, Nirdesh Jain, Himanshu Yadav
January-June 2012, 3(1):78-80
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95973  PMID:22690056
Dementia with the onset before the age of 65 years is classified as early-onset dementia. Although uncommon, it has considerable impact on the lives of patients and care givers, alike. A substantial subset of patients may have underlying reversible causes. Yet, many, especially those of the very young may be initially misdiagnosed. A case of young woman with rapid mental decay is described here. She was finally diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri (GC) involving only right frontal lobe. This atypical radiological feature of GC with primary presentation as memory loss needs special attention and clinicians should be aware of such conditions.
  2 2,366 278
Pseudotumor cerebri following traumatic brain injury in a 29-year-old man
Mohammed Izad Rahman, Savitha Raveendran, Chandrasekaran Kaliaperumal, Charles Marks
January-June 2012, 3(1):105-107
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95987  PMID:22690064
We describe a case of pseudotumor cerebri in a young man developing 4 years post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). A 29-year-old man was admitted after sustaining a fall with headache, and no clinical deficits were noted on examination. CT brain demonstrated an extradural hematoma. This was successfully evacuated after his symptomatic worsening. Following this, he developed bone flap infection and had the infected bone flap removed. He developed chronic mild-to-moderate headache following these procedures, which failed to respond to medical treatment. Pseudotumor cerebri was diagnosed. A lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt, ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt, and bitemporal craniectomy were performed as a part of management at different stages. Post-TBI patients may present with chronic headache and in such circumstances, a possibility of pseudotumor cerebri must be considered. Investigations should include neuroimaging in the form of MRI/MRV and fundoscopy to look for papilledema. Management in the form of CSF flow diversion techniques (VP and LP shunt) with medical management results in good clinical outcomes
  2 3,378 313
Congenital hypoparathyroidism presenting as recurrent seizures in an adult
Sourya Acharya, Samarth Shukla, Dinesh Singh, Rohit Deshpande, SN Mahajan
January-June 2012, 3(1):90-93
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95981  PMID:22690060
Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism may manifest as serious neurologic symptoms such as seizures, movement disorders, or raised intracranial pressure. Several patients were observed to have these dangerous neurologic complications even without subtle signs of hypocalcemia like tetany, chvostek's sign or carpopedal spasms. We present a case of recurrent hypocalcemic seizures due to congenital hypoparathyroidism.
  2 3,603 332
Peripheral ossifying fibroma
Parveen Dahiya, Reet Kamal, Gaurav Saini, Shweta Agarwal
January-June 2012, 3(1):94-96
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95983  PMID:22690061
A case of peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) in the mandibular gingiva of a 17-year-old male is described. The lesion was asymptomatic, firm, pink, and present on the lingual alveolar mucosa interdentally between 43 and 44. Radiographic investigations revealed no significant findings. Excisional biopsy was performed for the lesion. Microscopic findings confirmed the diagnosis of POF.
  2 3,486 424
Therapeutic interventions in endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation
Sandeep S Walia, Harpreet S Walia
January-June 2012, 3(1):108-109
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95989  PMID:22690065
  1 1,559 253
Effect of novel phosphoramidate on growth and respiratory metabolism of Paramecium aurelia
Benbouzid Houneida, H Berrebah, M Berredjem, MR Djebar
January-June 2012, 3(1):48-51
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95949  PMID:22690051
The continuous increase in the number of new chemicals as well as the discharges of solid and liquid wastes triggered the need for simple and inexpensive bioassays for routine testing. In recent years, there has been increasing development of methods (particularly rapid tests) for testing environmental samples. This paper describes the quick toxic evaluation of a novel synthetic compound: Phosphoramidate derivative B at different concentrations (2, 4 and 8 μM) for 72 h on Paramecium aurelia. We showed that B concentrations affect the growth of Paramecium in concentration- dependent manner; also it decreases the growth rate and increases response percentage in concentration- dependent manner. The value of LC50 obtained for these protozoa was estimated at 4.9693 μM after 24 hours of exposure. The respiratory metabolism of protozoan is perturbed at three concentrations, noting that the oxygen consumption was significantly increased at high concentrations after 18 hours of exposure. The results indicate that the Paramecium toxicity assay could be used as a complementary system to rapidly elucidate the cytotoxic potential of insecticides. The major advantages associated with these tests are: inexpensive, simple, rapid and seem to be attractive alternatives to conventional bioassays
  1 2,172 320
An gene expression pattern
Manjul Tiwari
January-June 2012, 3(1):12-18
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95935  PMID:22690045
DNA microarray technology has become a powerful tool in the arsenal of the molecular biologist. Capitalizing on high-precision robotics and the wealth of DNA sequences annotated from the genomes of a large number of organisms, the manufacture of microarrays is now possible for the average academic laboratory with the funds and motivation. Microarray production requires attention to both biological and physical resources, including DNA libraries, robotics, and qualified personnel. Although the fabrication of microarrays is a very labor-intensive process, production of quality microarrays individually tailored on a project-by-project basis will help researchers shed light on future scientific questions.
  1 2,652 443
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs misleading the diagnosis of periapical abscess
JP Angeline Archana, AC Jesudoss Prabhakaran
January-June 2012, 3(1):84-86
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95978  PMID:22690058
Periapical abscesses are common but may rarely be a subclinical infection in dental clinics. If an infection progresses rapidly or slowly as a tooth ache of chronic periodontitis with clinical features misleading the diagnosis, the dentists are able to recognize the salient signs and identify the patients at risk. This article reviews a case of a rare innocuous periapical abscess presenting as angioedema of upper lip with history of consuming nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac sodium whenever needed for arthralgia on a short-term basis.
  - 4,101 359
Isolated facial cutaneous sarcoidosis
Sumir Kumar, Ravinder Garg, Simmi Aggarwal, Jaskanwal Kaur
January-June 2012, 3(1):87-89
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95980  PMID:22690059
Isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis is a rare multisystemic granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. Cutaneous lesions have been classified into specific and nonspecific depending on the presence of noncaseating granulomas on histopathologic studies. Macrophages most likely initiate the response of sarcoidosis by presenting unidentified antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes. A persistent poorly degradable antigen-driven CMI response leads to cytokine cascade, granulomaformation, and fibrosis. In the present study, we report a case of isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis, localized to the face, in an adolescent girl without systemic manifestations which is a rare entity.
  - 4,399 310
Effectively communicating the 5R's (replace, reduce, refine, reuse, and rehabilitate) of research ethics, biomedical waste, personalized medicines and the rest
HS Arun Kumar
January-June 2012, 3(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95932  PMID:22690043
  - 2,799 493
Natural selection in a population group of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Anup K Kapoor, Jaspreet Kaur
January-June 2012, 3(1):71-77
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95966  PMID:22690055
Background : Natural selection is a continuous process that operates in populations to weed out deleterious genes and preserve the genes that increase the chances of survival, procreation, and multiplication. The fitness of a population group is measured in terms of its differential fertility and mortality. These are the most fundamental events through which the natural selection is operative. Selection intensity, which is a measure of the fitness of a population, is expressed in terms of differential fertility, and differential mortality, assuming that the heritability of fitness is complete and that the birth and death rates are all selective. These indices are influenced by a number of socio-cultural conditions, religious, ethnic, and environmental factors which have been studied by different researchers in different parts of the world, including India. Objective : In this paper, an attempt was made to study the index of total selection, index of selection due to mortality, and index of selection due to fertility among the Andaman Indians, an island population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and we highlight the variability of selection intensity in different ecological zones of India, namely the island, coastal, plains and plateau, Himalayan region, and the desert ecologies. Materials and Methods : Data were collected on pre-designed questionnaire, from women aged 40 + years, on various demographic parameters. Results : The value of the Index of Total Selection was found to be 1.263, the component due to fertility was 1.020, and that of mortality was found to be 0.120
  - 5,280 334
A mathematical applications into the cells
Manjul Tiwari
January-June 2012, 3(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95937  PMID:22690046
Biology has become the new "physics" of mathematics, one of the areas of greatest mathematical applications. In turn, mathematics has provided powerful tools and metaphors to approach the astonishing complexity of biological systems. This has allowed the development of sound theoretical frameworks. Here, in this review article, some of the most significant contributions of mathematics to biology, ranging from population genetics, to developmental biology, and to networks of species interactions are summarized.
  - 3,011 385
Speech acoustics: How much science?
Manjul Tiwari
January-June 2012, 3(1):24-31
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95942  PMID:22690047
Human vocalizations are sounds made exclusively by a human vocal tract. Among other vocalizations, for example, laughs or screams, speech is the most important. Speech is the primary medium of that supremely human symbolic communication system called language. One of the functions of a voice, perhaps the main one, is to realize language, by conveying some of the speaker's thoughts in linguistic form. Speech is language made audible. Moreover, when phoneticians compare and describe voices, they usually do so with respect to linguistic units, especially speech sounds, like vowels or consonants. It is therefore necessary to understand the structure as well as nature of speech sounds and how they are described. In order to understand and evaluate the speech, it is important to have at least a basic understanding of science of speech acoustics: how the acoustics of speech are produced, how they are described, and how differences, both between speakers and within speakers, arise in an acoustic output. One of the aims of this article is try to facilitate this understanding.
  - 4,866 403