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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2010| July-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since October 23, 2010

 
 
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MEDICINE
Antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging effects of fruits of Dregea volubilis
Moulisha Biswas, Pallab Kanti Haldar, Ashoke Kumar Ghosh
July-December 2010, 1(1):29-34
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71670  PMID:22096333
This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of petroleum ether (60-80°C), chloroform, and methanol extract of the fruits of Dregea volubilis Benth (Asclepiadaceae). The different antioxidant assays, including total antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radical, super oxide anion radical, nitric oxide scavenging, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content were studied. The extracts exhibited potent total antioxidant activity that increased with increasing amount of extract concentration, which was compared with standard drug vitamin C at different concentrations as extracts. The different concentrations of all the extracts and vitamin C showed inhibition on lipid peroxidation. In addition, all the extracts had effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, super oxide anion scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content depending on concentration. These various antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant such as vitamin C at different concentration as different extracts.
  28 6,358 913
Role of antibodies in cancer targeting
Husain Attarwala
July-December 2010, 1(1):53-56
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71675  PMID:22096337
The development of chemotherapeutic agents capable of specifically eliminating tumor cells has been a great challenge since these agents cannot differentiate between normal body cells and tumor cells. Enhanced elimination of cancer cells without affecting normal body cells can be achieved by developing strategies which can enable drug targeting. With recent advances in antibody engineering strategies, the development of different antibody-associated tumor-targeted delivery systems for chemotherapy, chemoprevention, and early cancer diagnosis has become possible. In this review, the role of antibodies for cancer diagnosis, chemoprevention, and chemotherapy will be discussed with an emphasis on recent advances in antibody engineering.
  22 6,243 747
BIOLOGY
Intracellular scavenging activity of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid) in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Ismail Hamad, Nazli Arda, Murat Pekmez, Semian Karaer, Güler Temizkan
July-December 2010, 1(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71667  PMID:22096330
The ability of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid), a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, to prevent oxidative damages is well characterized, but the mechanisms underlying it remain unclear. The protective effect of Trolox pre-treatment on H 2 O 2 -induced toxicity might be attributed to the decreased cellular permeability to H 2 O 2 or in vitro scavenging activity of Trolox, induction of antioxidant enzymes or the direct scavenging activity of Trolox. The results obtained rule out the first and second possibilities and intracellular scavenging activity was found to be the mechanism whereby Trolox confers protection. This was confirmed by measuring protein oxidation (levels), and the observed decrease in proteasomal activity indicated that the decrease in protein carbonyls was due to Trolox scavenging activity rather than proteasome activation. In conclusion, the intracellular scavenging activity of Trolox is a key protective mechanism against H 2 O 2 . These findings obtained in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a good model organism for eukaryotic cells, can be used as standard protocols for investigating the antioxidant activity of pure or complex potential antioxidants.
  20 6,690 794
NATURAL SCIENCE
Orodispersible tablets: A new trend in drug delivery
Paramita Dey, Sabyasachi Maiti
July-December 2010, 1(1):2-5
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71663  PMID:22096326
The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug-delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other oral formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to super disintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper peroral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method of preparation is the compression method. Other special methods are molding, melt granulation, phase-transition process, sublimation, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and effervescent method. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test, and dissolution test.
  16 8,041 1,724
BIOLOGY
Antibacterial activity of garlic extract on streptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli solely and in synergism with streptomycin
MN Palaksha, Mansoor Ahmed, Sanjoy Das
July-December 2010, 1(1):12-15
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71666  PMID:22096329
This study focuses the significant antibacterial activity of Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on streptomycin-resistant strains solely and in synergism with streptomycin. Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA 1026 and gram-negative Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 were made resistant to standard antibiotic streptomycin used as a control in the experiment. Zones of inhibition of different treatment groups were measured by agar-well-diffusion assay and compared with control. Statistical comparison of sole extract and streptomycin synergism with streptomycin control had proved it significant.
  14 12,477 1,334
MEDICINE
Periodontitis: A risk for delivery of premature labor and low-birth-weight infants
Rajiv Saini, Santosh Saini, Sugandha R Saini
July-December 2010, 1(1):40-42
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71672  PMID:22096335
Periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth and is caused by specific microorganisms or group of specific microorganisms. The association of periodontal infection with organ systems like cardiovascular system, endocrine system, reproductive system, and respiratory system makes periodontal infection a complex multiphase disease. Inflamed periodontal tissues produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, prostaglandin E2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which may have systemic effects on the host. Low birth weight, defined as birth weight less than 2,500 g, continues to be a significant public health issue in both developed and developing countries. Research suggests that the bacteria that cause inflammation in the gums can actually get into the bloodstream and target the fetus, potentially leading to premature labor and low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies. One reasonable mechanism begins with deleterious effects of endotoxins released from Gram-negative bacteria responsible for periodontal disease. Hence periodontal disease appears to be an independent risk factor for PLBW and there is a need to expand preventive measures for pregnant women in harmonization with the gynecological and dental professions.
  10 5,208 699
Stem cells: An overview with respect to cardiovascular and renal disease
Rajnish Kumar, Anju Sharma, Ashok Kumar Pattnaik, Pritish Kumar Varadwaj
July-December 2010, 1(1):43-52
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71674  PMID:22096336
In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of stem cell biology. Stem cells have clonogenic and self-renewing capabilities, and under certain conditions, can differentiate into multiple lineages of mature cells. Recent studies have shown that adult stem cells can be isolated from a wide variety of tissues, including bone marrow, peripheral blood, muscle, and adipose tissue. The potential clinical applications lead to an extended interest in the use of stem cells in many medical disciplines. In this article, we present an overview of stem cells with special reference to cardiovascular and renal diseases treatments by stem cells.
  9 6,186 741
A study on poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital
Subash Vijaya Kumar, B Venkateswarlu, M Sasikala, G Vijay Kumar
July-December 2010, 1(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71671  PMID:22096334
Acute poisoning with various substance is common everywhere. The earlier the initial resuscitations, gastric decontamination and use of specific antidotes, the better the outcome. The aim of this study was to characterize the poisoning cases admitted to the tertiary care hospital, Warangal district, Andhra Pradesh, Southern India. All cases admitted to the emergency department of the hospital between the months of January and December, 2007, were evaluated retrospectively. We reviewed data obtained from the hospital medical records and included the following factors: socio-demographic characteristics, agents and route of intake and time of admission of the poisoned patients. During the outbreak in 2007, 2,226 patients were admitted to the hospital with different poisonings; the overall case fatality rate was 8.3% (n = 186). More detailed data from 2007 reveals that two-third of the patients were 21-30 years old, 5.12% (n = 114) were male and 3.23% (n = 72) were female, who had intentionally poisoned themselves. In summary, the tertiary care hospitals of the Telangana region, Warangal, indicate that significant opportunities for reducing mortality are achieved by better medical management and further sales restrictions on the most toxic pesticides. This study highlighted the lacunae in the services of tertiary care hospitals and the need to establish a poison information center for the better management and prevention of poisoning cases.
  6 4,805 743
BIOLOGY
Anticandidal activity of endemic Salvia potentillifolia Boiss. and Heldr . ex Bentham and Origanum hypericifolium Schwartz and P.H. Davis in Turkey
A Celik, C Ergin, I Arslan, T Kartal
July-December 2010, 1(1):22-24
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71668  PMID:22096331
This study established baseline data on lytic anticandidal activities of endemic species Origanum hypericifolium and Salvia potentillifolia naturally distributed in Denizli and its environment. Stream distillation was used to isolate the unfatty polar part and clinical isolated Candida spp. strains were subcultured to sabouraud dextrose agar. Lytic anticandidal activities of unfatty polar parts were evaluated by enzyme-linked calorimetric method against 93 clinical isolates belonging to Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. Kefyr, and C. parapsilosis. As a result, two (2.15%) strains of C. glabrata among tested pathogenic 93 clinical isolates of Candida strains were found to be sensitive to S. potentillifolai. However, each strain of C. albicans and C. tropicalis was found to be sensitive to O. hypericifolium. Results indicated that O. hypericifolium and S. potentillifolia had a potential of being used in food and medicine because of their anticandidal activity.
  1 2,266 426
Geochemical studies of fluoride and other water quality parameters of ground water in Dhule region Maharashtra, India
Dilip A Patil, Prashant K Deshmukh, Ravindra A Fursule, Pravin O Patil
July-December 2010, 1(1):9-11
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71665  PMID:22096328
This study has been carried out to find out the water pollutants and to test the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes in Dhule and surrounding areas in Maharashtra State in India. The analysis was carried out for the parameters pH, DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biological oxygen demand), Cl−, NO3−, F−, S 2−, total alkalinity, total solid, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness, calcium, magnesium, carbonate and noncarbonate hardness, and concentrations of calcium and magnesium. These parameters were compared against the standards laid down by World Health Organization (WHO) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for drinking water quality. High levels of NO 3−, Cl−, F−, S 2−, total solid, TDS, TSS, total hardness, magnesium and calcium have been found in the collected samples. From these observations, it has been found that fluoride is present as per the permissible limit (WHO 2003) in some of the villages studied, but both fluoride and nitrate levels are unacceptable in drinking water samples taken from several villages in Dhule. This is a serious problem and, therefore, requires immediate attention. Excess of theses impurities in water causes many diseases in plants and animals. This study has been carried out to find out the water pollutants and to test the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes in Dhule and surrounding areas in Maharashtra.
  - 3,034 484
EDITORIAL
Launch of Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine for the global scientific audience
HS Arun Kumar
July-December 2010, 1(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71662  PMID:22096325
  - 2,240 525
MEDICINE
HindIII-based restriction fragment length polymorphism in hemophilic and nonhemophilic patients
Alok Kumar Dubey, Nuzhat Hussain, Neha Mittal
July-December 2010, 1(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71669  PMID:22096332
Hemophilia A is most common recessively inherited bleeding disorder, which affect one in five thousand male births throughout the world. In most of the hemophilic A patients, no common mutation is easily identifiable. This limitation has been overcome by the use of polymorphic DNA marker, i.e., restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). This marker of polymorphism could only be detected by amplifying the polymorphic region and digestion the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product with the restriction enzyme (PCR−RFLP), i.e., HindIII. The polymorphic region of HindIII is 608 bp in length and after the restriction digestion, different sizes of fragments, i.e., 427 and 181 bp were, respectively, obtained. However, in homozygous (+/+) condition three bands of 427, 100, and 81 bp were obtained and in the other negative allelic homozygous condition (-/-) two bands of 427 and 181 bp were obtained. Similarly fragments of different sizes, i.e., 427, 181, 100, and 81 bp were obtained in heterozygous conditions. Therefore, in this study, we have analyzed the factor VIII gene in the 17 different families using restriction enzyme HindIII-based RFLP molecular marker technique. Out of these, the observed heterozygosity for HindIII was found 47.5%, whereas, for positive allele it was 26%, and for negative allele the frequency was 74%.
  - 7,104 488
NATURAL SCIENCE
Impact of uncertainty on sound perception
Xiang Cao
July-December 2010, 1(1):6-8
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71664  PMID:22096327
In the auditory study, masking caused by sound uncertainty is a hot topic because research on this topic has a potential to be applied to improve human perception in a real world. This article introduces the origination of the study on this so-called informational masking and lists some key results obtained. The informational masking is widely accepted to result from the central auditory system since the classical auditory peripheral model fails to account for the data. This article reviewed the currently most satisfactory model on informational masking and its ability and disability in accounting for current experimental data. In the end, potential sources of the informational masking are discussed as an indication for the future research direction. The review is mostly based on articles published in JASA and JARO, the two most prestigious journals in the auditory study.
  - 2,283 430
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