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Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments
Hakan Çolak, Çoruh T Dülgergil, Mehmet Dalli, Mehmet Mustafa Hamidi
January-June 2013, 4(1):29-38
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.107257  PMID:23633832
Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. ECC can begin early in life, progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Its consequences can affect the immediate and long-term quality of life of the child's family and can have significant social and economic consequences beyond the immediate family as well. ECC can be a particularly virulent form of caries, beginning soon after dental eruption, developing on smooth surfaces, progressing rapidly, and having a lasting detrimental impact on the dentition. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both the primary and permanent dentitions. The relationship between breastfeeding and ECC is likely to be complex and confounded by many biological variables, such as mutans streptococci, enamel hypoplasia, intake of sugars, as well as social variables, such as parental education and socioeconomic status, which may affect oral health. Unlike other infectious diseases, tooth decay is not self-limiting. Decayed teeth require professional treatment to remove infection and restore tooth function. In this review, we give detailed information about ECC, from its diagnosis to management.
  86 20,842 2,302
Ozone therapy: A clinical review
AM Elvis, JS Ekta
January-June 2011, 2(1):66-70
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.82319  PMID:22470237
Ozone (O 3 ) gas discovered in the mid-nineteenth century is a molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen in a dynamically unstable structure due to the presence of mesomeric states. Although O 3 has dangerous effects, yet researchers believe it has many therapeutic effects. Ozone therapy has been utilized and heavily studied for more than a century. Its effects are proven, consistent, safe and with minimal and preventable side effects. Medical O 3 is used to disinfect and treat disease. Mechanism of actions is by inactivation of bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast and protozoa, stimulation of oxygen metabolism, activation of the immune system. Medication forms in a gaseous state are somewhat unusual, and it is for this reason that special application techniques have had to be developed for the safe use of O 3 . In local applications as in the treatment of external wounds, its application in the form of a transcutaneous O 3 gas bath has established itself as being the most practical and useful method, for example at low (sub-atmospheric) pressure in a closed system guaranteeing no escape of O 3 into the surrounding air. Ozonized water, whose use is particularly known in dental medicine, is optimally applied as a spray or compress. Diseases treated are infected wounds, circulatory disorders, geriatric conditions, macular degeneration, viral diseases, rheumatism/arthritis, cancer, SARS and AIDS.
  53 23,371 4,175
Role of curcumin in systemic and oral health: An overview
Monika Nagpal, Shaveta Sood
January-June 2013, 4(1):3-7
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.107253  PMID:23633828
Various modalities of treatment are available for different dental diseases, but the major drawback of these conventional drug therapies is the numerous side effects associated with their use. This has led to renewed interest in the discovery of novel anti-infective natural compounds derived from plants. Plants have been the major source of medicine since the time immemorial. Turmeric has been attributed a number of medicinal properties in the traditional system of medicine. The objective of this article is to review the efficacy of turmeric herb in maintenance of oral health, in particular, and overall health, in general. Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcuma longa, is a herb known for its medicinal properties and is a more acceptable and viable option for a common man. It has proven properties like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant, antiseptic, and antimutagenic. Due to these properties, it is quite useful in dentistry as well. It has a role in the treatment of periodontal diseases and oral cancers. Turmeric can also be used as a pit and fissure sealant, mouth wash, and subgingival irrigant in different preparations. It can also be used as a component in local drug delivery system in gel form.
  41 21,855 2,694
Immunity over inability: The spontaneous regression of cancer
Thomas Jessy
January-June 2011, 2(1):43-49
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.82318  PMID:22470233
The spontaneous healing of cancer is a phenomenon that has been observed for hundreds and thousands of years and after having been the subject of many controversies, it is now accepted as an indisputable fact. A review of past reports demonstrates that regression is usually associated with acute infections, fever, and immunostimulation. It is stated that in 1891, William Coley of New York's Memorial Hospital developed the most effective single-agent anticancer therapy from nature, which faded into oblivion for various reasons. Cancer therapies have been standardized and have improved since Coley's day, but surprisingly modern cancer patients do not fare better than patients treated 50 or more years ago as concluded by researchers in 1999. This article peeks into the history of immunostimulation and the role of innate immunity in inducing a cure even in advanced stages of malignancy. The value of Coley's observation is that rather than surviving additional years with cancer, many of the patients who received his therapy lived the rest of their lives without cancer. In our relentless efforts to go beyond nature to fight cancer, we often overlook the facts nature provides to heal our maladies.
  40 8,082 1,277
Preventive effects of phytoestrogens against postmenopausal osteoporosis as compared to the available therapeutic choices: An overview
Abdullah Foraih Al-Anazi, Viquar Fatima Qureshi, Khalida Javaid, Shoeb Qureshi
July-December 2011, 2(2):154-163
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.92322  PMID:22346228
Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been rampantly used to recompense for the bone loss, but the procedure is coupled with severe adverse effects. Hence, there is a boost in the production of newer synthetic products to ward off the effects of menopause-related osteoporosis. As of today, there are several prescription products available for the treatment of postmenopause osteoporosis; most of these are estrogenic agents and combination products. Nevertheless, in view of the lack of effect and/or toxicity of these products, majority of the postmenopausal women are now fascinated by highly publicized natural products. This is an offshoot of the generalized consensus that these products are more effective and free from any adverse effects. Recently, certain plant-derived natural products, mostly phytoestrogens (isoflavones, lignans, coumestanes, stilbenes, flavonoids) and many more novel estrogen-like compounds in plants have been immensely used to prevent menopause-related depletion in bone mineral density (BMD). Although, a number of papers are published on menopause-related general symptoms, sexual dysfunction, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, colon, and breast cancers, there is paucity of literature on the accompanying osteoporosis and its treatment. In view of the controversies on synthetic hormones and drugs and drift of a major population of patients toward natural drugs, it was found worthwhile to investigate if these drugs are suitable to be used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Preparation of this paper is an attempt to review the (a) epidemiology of postmenopausal osteoporosis, (b) treatment modalities of postmenopausal osteoporosis by hormones and synthetic drugs and the associated drawbacks and adverse effects, and (c) prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis by phytoestrogens, their drawbacks and toxicity. It is apparent that both the categories of treatment are useful and both have adverse effects, but the plant products are nonscientific and hence are not advised to be used till more studies are undertaken to ensure that the benefits clearly outweigh the risk, in addition to recognition by Food and Drug Administration.
  37 7,324 1,230
Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds
Sunil Kumar Sethy, Shyamasree Ghosh
July-December 2013, 4(2):272-275
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.116964  PMID:24082715
With the expansion of the world population, the environmental pollution and toxicity by chemicals raises concern. Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of pollutants such as pesticides, petroleum products, acids and heavy metals in the natural resources like soil, water and air thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting both plants and animals. Heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt, chromium and mercury are important environmental pollutants that cause toxic effects to plants; thus, lessening productivity and posing dangerous threats to the agro-ecosystems. They act as stress to plants and affect the plant physiology. In this review, we have summarized the effects of heavy metals on seeds of different plants affecting the germination process. Although reports exist on mechanisms by which the heavy metals act as stress and how plants have learnt to overcome, the future scope of this review remains in excavating the signaling mechanisms in germinating seeds in response to heavy metal stress.
  35 7,641 3,692
Science behind human saliva
Manjul Tiwari
January-June 2011, 2(1):53-58
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.82322  PMID:22470235
Saliva is a complex fluid, which influences oral health through specific and nonspecific physical and chemical properties. The importance of saliva in our everyday activities and the medicinal properties it possesses are often taken for granted. However, when disruptions in the quality or quantity of saliva do occur in an individual, it is likely that he or she will experience detrimental effects on oral and systemic health. Often head and neck radiotherapy has serious and detrimental side effects on the oral cavity including the loss of salivary gland function and a persistent complaint of a dry mouth (xerostomia). Thus, saliva has a myriad of beneficial functions that are essential to our well-being. Although saliva has been extensively investigated as a medium, few laboratories have studied saliva in the context of its role in maintaining oral and general health.
  30 12,209 1,569
Antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging effects of fruits of Dregea volubilis
Moulisha Biswas, Pallab Kanti Haldar, Ashoke Kumar Ghosh
July-December 2010, 1(1):29-34
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71670  PMID:22096333
This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of petroleum ether (60-80°C), chloroform, and methanol extract of the fruits of Dregea volubilis Benth (Asclepiadaceae). The different antioxidant assays, including total antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radical, super oxide anion radical, nitric oxide scavenging, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content were studied. The extracts exhibited potent total antioxidant activity that increased with increasing amount of extract concentration, which was compared with standard drug vitamin C at different concentrations as extracts. The different concentrations of all the extracts and vitamin C showed inhibition on lipid peroxidation. In addition, all the extracts had effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, super oxide anion scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content depending on concentration. These various antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant such as vitamin C at different concentration as different extracts.
  28 6,460 923
Regulation of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus by stress, acetylcholine and dopamine
J Veena, BS Shankaranarayana Rao, BN Srikumar
January-June 2011, 2(1):26-37
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.82312  PMID:22470231
Neurogenesis is well-established to occur during adulthood in two regions of the brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. Research for more than two decades has implicated a role for adult neurogenesis in several brain functions including learning and effects of antidepressants and antipsychotics. Clear understanding of the players involved in the regulation of adult neurogenesis is emerging. We review evidence for the role of stress, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) as regulators of neurogenesis in the SGZ. Largely, stress decreases neurogenesis, while the effects of ACh and DA depend on the type of receptors mediating their action. Increasingly, the new neurons formed in adulthood are potentially linked to crucial brain processes such as learning and memory. In brain disorders like Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, stress-induced cognitive dysfunction, depression and age-associated dementia, the necessity to restore brain functions is enormous. Activation of the resident stem cells in the adult brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has immense potential and understanding the mechanisms of regulation of adult neurogenesis by endogenous and exogenous factors holds the key to develop therapeutic strategies for the debilitating neurological and psychiatric disorders.
  28 11,033 1,595
Ozone therapy in dentistry: A strategic review
Rajiv Saini
July-December 2011, 2(2):151-153
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.92318  PMID:22346227
The oral cavity appears as an open ecosystem, with a dynamic balance between the entrance of microorganisms, colonization modalities, and host defenses aimed to their removal: To avoid elimination, bacteria need to adhere to either hard dental surfaces or epithelial surfaces. The oral biofilm formation and development, and the inside selection of specific microorganisms have been correlated with the most common oral pathologies, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and peri-implantitis. The mechanical removal of the biofilm and adjunctive use of antibiotic disinfectants or various antibiotics have been the conventional methods for periodontal therapy. Ozone (O3) is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms, and its application in medicine and dentistry has been indicated for the treatment of 260 different pathologies. The ozone therapy has been more beneficial than present conventional therapeutic modalities that follow a minimally invasive and conservative application to dental treatment. The exposition of molecular mechanisms of ozone further benefits practical function in dentistry.
  28 7,371 1,993
Halitosis: From diagnosis to management
Bahadir Ugur Aylikci, Hakan Çolak
January-June 2013, 4(1):14-23
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.107255  PMID:23633830
Halitosis is formed by volatile molecules which are caused because of pathological or nonpathological reasons and it originates from an oral or a non-oral source. It is very common in general population and nearly more than 50% of the general population have halitosis. Although halitosis has multifactorial origins, the source of 90% cases is oral cavity such as poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, tongue coat, food impaction, unclean dentures, faulty restorations, oral carcinomas, and throat infections. Halitosis affects a person's daily life negatively, most of people who complain about halitosis refer to the clinic for treatment but in some of the people who can suffer from halitosis, there is no measurable halitosis. There are several methods to determine halitosis. Halitosis can be treated if its etiology can be detected rightly. The most important issue for treatment of halitosis is detection etiology or determination its source by detailed clinical examination. Management may include simple measures such as scaling and root planning, instructions for oral hygiene, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing. The aim of this review was to describe the etiological factors, prevalence data, diagnosis, and the therapeutic mechanical and chemical approaches related to halitosis.
  27 9,564 1,786
Search of potential inhibitor against New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 from a series of antibacterial natural compounds
Prasoon Kumar Thakur, Jitender Kumar, Divya Ray, Farah Anjum, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
January-June 2013, 4(1):51-56
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.107260  PMID:23633835
Background: New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Gram-negative bacteria are today's major worldwide health concern. The enzyme NDM-1 provides bacterial resistance by its hydrolytic activity against the β-lactam ring of antibiotics. Inhibition of NDM-1 may prevent the hydrolysis of β-lactam ring of the antibiotics, and therefore, plays an important role against antibacterial resistance. Materials and Methods: Here we made an attempt to design suitable inhibitors against NDM-1 from different natural antibacterial compounds using molecular docking approach. Results: We observed that natural compounds such as Nimbolide and Isomargololone are showing an appreciable IC50 value as well as significant binding energy value for NDM-1. We further observed these compounds showing better affinity to NDM-1 on comparison with 14 β-lactam antibiotics. Conclusion: Finally, our study provides a platform for the development of a potent inhibitor of NDM-1, which may be considered as a potential drug candidate against bacterial resistance.
  25 5,746 1,023
A scientometric analysis of Indian research output in medicine during 1999-2008
BM Gupta, Adarsh Bala
January-June 2011, 2(1):87-100
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.82313  PMID:22470241
Objective: This study analyzes the research activities of India in medicine during 1999-2008, based on the total publication output, its growth rate, quality of papers published and rank of India in the global context. Patterns of international collaborative research output and the major partner countries of India are also discussed. This study also evaluates the research performance of different types of Indian medical colleges, hospitals, research institutes, universities and research foundations and the characteristics of published literature in Indian and foreign journals. It also analyzes the medical research output by disease and organs. Materials and Methods: The publication data on medicine has been retrieved by using SCOPUS database. Results: India holds 12th rank among the productive countries in medicine research consisting of 65,745 papers with a global publication share of 1.59% and registering a growth rate of 76.68% for the papers published during 1999-2003 to 2004-2008. Conclusion: High quality research in India is grossly inadequate and requires strategic planning, investment and resource support. There is also a need to improve the existing medical education system, which should foster research culture.
  23 7,196 1,079
Vagal nerve stimulator: Evolving trends
Sunny Ogbonnaya, Chandrasekaran Kaliaperumal
January-June 2013, 4(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.107254  PMID:23633829
Over three decades ago, it was found that intermittent electrical stimulation from the vagus nerve produces inhibition of neural processes, which can alter brain activity and terminate seizures. This paved way for the concept of vagal nerve stimulator (VNS). We describe the evolution of the VNS and its use in different fields of medicine. We also review the literature focusing on the mechanism of action of VNS producing desired effects in different conditions. PUBMED and EMBASE search was performed for 'VNS' and its use in refractory seizure management, depression, obesity, memory, and neurogenesis. VNS has been in vogue over for the past three decades and has proven to reduce the intensity and frequency of seizure by 50% in the management of refractory seizures. Apart from this, VNS has been shown to promote neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus after 48 hours of stimulation of the vagus nerve. Improvement has also been observed in non-psychotic major depression from a randomized trial conducted 7 years ago. The same concept has been utilized to alter behavior and cognition in rodents, and good improvement has been observed. Recent studies have proven that VNS is effective in obesity management in patients with depression. Several hypotheses have been postulated for the mechanism of action of VNS contributing to its success. VNS has gained significant popularity with promising results in epilepsy surgery and treatment-resistant depression. The spectrum of its use has also extended to other fields of medicine including obesity, memory, and neurogenesis, and there is still a viable scope for its utility in the future.
  23 6,734 1,039
Role of antibodies in cancer targeting
Husain Attarwala
July-December 2010, 1(1):53-56
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71675  PMID:22096337
The development of chemotherapeutic agents capable of specifically eliminating tumor cells has been a great challenge since these agents cannot differentiate between normal body cells and tumor cells. Enhanced elimination of cancer cells without affecting normal body cells can be achieved by developing strategies which can enable drug targeting. With recent advances in antibody engineering strategies, the development of different antibody-associated tumor-targeted delivery systems for chemotherapy, chemoprevention, and early cancer diagnosis has become possible. In this review, the role of antibodies for cancer diagnosis, chemoprevention, and chemotherapy will be discussed with an emphasis on recent advances in antibody engineering.
  22 6,329 756
Antimicrobial resistance in India: A review
S Ganesh Kumar, C Adithan, BN Harish, S Sujatha, Gautam Roy, A Malini
July-December 2013, 4(2):286-291
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.116970  PMID:24082718
Antimicrobial resistance is an important concern for the public health authorities at global level. However, in developing countries like India, recent hospital and some community based data showed increase in burden of antimicrobial resistance. Research related to antimicrobial use, determinants and development of antimicrobial resistance, regional variation and interventional strategies according to the existing health care situation in each country is a big challenge. This paper discusses the situational analysis of antimicrobial resistance with respect to its problem, determinants and challenges ahead with strategies required in future to reduce the burden in India. Recent data from Google search, Medline and other sources were collected which was reviewed and analyzed by the authors. Hospital based studies showed higher and varied spectrum of resistance in different regions while there are limited number of community based studies at country level. There exists lacunae in the structure and functioning of public health care delivery system with regard to quantification of the problem and various determining factors related to antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need to develop and strengthen antimicrobial policy, standard treatment guidelines, national plan for containment of AMR and research related to public health aspects of AMR at community and hospital level in India.
  22 5,288 1,466
Effect of high-dose zinc supplementation with oral hypoglycemic agents on glycemic control and inflammation in type-2 diabetic nephropathy patients
Mohd Idreesh Khan, Kauser Usman Siddique, Fauzia Ashfaq, Wahid Ali, Himanshu D Reddy, Arvind Mishra
July-December 2013, 4(2):336-340
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.117002  PMID:24082728
Objective: The study aims to evaluate the effect of zinc sulfate on markers of glycemic control, lipid profile and inflammation in type-2 diabetes with microalbuminuria patients. Materials and Methods: Type-2 diabetes with microalbuminuria patients on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were selected and divided into 2 groups: One group ( n = 27) continued with OHA alone, second group ( n = 27) was on OHA and in addition 50 mg elemental zinc as zinc sulphate supplementation for 12 weeks. Fasting, post-prandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profiles, inflammatory marker hs-CRP and urine microalbumin were measured. Results: There were no significant differences in biochemical status among groups at baseline. After receiving zinc, the mean fasting blood glucose (FBS), post-prandial blood glucose (PPBS) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were decreased significantly ( P = 0.0001). Significant decrease was observed in TG ( P = 0.002) and VLDL-cholesterol ( P = 0.002), whereas there was no significant decrease in TC and LDL-cholesterol. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly ( P = 0.0001) increased from baseline. Zinc supplementation had significant effects in decreasing serum hs-CRP from 10.51 ± 1.68 mg/L to 7.75 ± 1.56 mg/L ( P = 0.0001) and microalbumin level from 146.87 ± 30.83 mg/day to 80.70 ± 33.99 mg/day ( P = 0.0001). There were no significant changes in the levels of all these parameters in OHA group. Conclusion: Our results conclude that supplementation of zinc improved the effectiveness of OHA and may be beneficial in decreasing blood glucose, TG, urinary albumin excretion and inflammation in diabetic nephropathy patients and thus reducing the risk of complications.
  21 4,070 617
Protein kinase C modulation of thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential channels: Implications for pain signaling
Sravan Mandadi, Patricia J Armati, Basil D Roufogalis
January-June 2011, 2(1):13-25
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.82311  PMID:22470230
A variety of molecules are reported to be involved in chronic pain. This review outlines the specifics of protein kinase C (PKC), its isoforms and their role in modulating thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1. Anatomically, PKC and thermo-sensitive TRPs are co-expressed in cell bodies of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which are used as physiological correlates of peripheral and central projections involved in pain transmission. In the past decade, modulation of painful heat-sensitive TRPV1 by PKC has received the most attention. Recently, PKC modulation of other newly discovered thermo-sensitive pain-mediating TRPs has come into focus. Such modulation may occur under conditions of chronic pain resulting from nerve damage or inflammation. Since thermo-TRPs are primary detectors of acute pain stimuli, their modulation by PKC can severely alter their function, resulting in chronic pain. Comprehensive knowledge of pain signaling involving interaction of specific isoforms of PKC with specific thermo-sensitive TRP channels is incomplete. Such information is necessary to dissect out modality specific mechanisms to better manage the complex polymodal nature of chronic pain. This review is an attempt to update the readers on current knowledge of PKC modulation of thermo-sensitive TRPs and highlight implications of such modulation for pain signaling
  21 8,620 1,288
Intracellular scavenging activity of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid) in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Ismail Hamad, Nazli Arda, Murat Pekmez, Semian Karaer, Güler Temizkan
July-December 2010, 1(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71667  PMID:22096330
The ability of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid), a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, to prevent oxidative damages is well characterized, but the mechanisms underlying it remain unclear. The protective effect of Trolox pre-treatment on H 2 O 2 -induced toxicity might be attributed to the decreased cellular permeability to H 2 O 2 or in vitro scavenging activity of Trolox, induction of antioxidant enzymes or the direct scavenging activity of Trolox. The results obtained rule out the first and second possibilities and intracellular scavenging activity was found to be the mechanism whereby Trolox confers protection. This was confirmed by measuring protein oxidation (levels), and the observed decrease in proteasomal activity indicated that the decrease in protein carbonyls was due to Trolox scavenging activity rather than proteasome activation. In conclusion, the intracellular scavenging activity of Trolox is a key protective mechanism against H 2 O 2 . These findings obtained in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a good model organism for eukaryotic cells, can be used as standard protocols for investigating the antioxidant activity of pure or complex potential antioxidants.
  20 6,784 798
Serum malondialdehyde level: Surrogate stress marker in the Sikkimese diabetics
Yazum Bhutia, Amrita Ghosh, Mingma L Sherpa, Ranabir Pal, Pradip Kumar Mohanta
January-June 2011, 2(1):107-112
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.82309  PMID:22470243
Background: The pbreakdown of phospholipids lead to accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) that is preferred as a surrogate marker of oxidative stress in diabetics. Objective: To compare serum MDA levels along with other biochemical parameters between type 2 diabetic patients with and without complications. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Sikkim on 60 type 2 diabetics and compared with 100 non-diabetic participants. The un-hemolyzed blood samples were used for estimation of biochemical parameters; MDA was estimated in serum by using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and 1% thiobarbituric acid (TBA). Whole blood was used for estimation of glycated hemoglobin. The comparison of different parameters between cases and control was calculated by using Student's t test. Results: In the study and control groups, no significant difference was noted with regard to independent variables. The fasting and postprandial serum glucose along with glycated hemoglobin from whole blood and the lipid profile differed significantly between the study and control groups. Overall, tmean serum MDA level in the study group was significantly higher thanin the controls. Male sex, addiction to tobacco (smoking and smokeless inclusive), longer duration of diabetes (≥5 years), and presence of complications (both microvascular and macrovascular) significantly increased the MDA level. Conclusion: To sum up, the serum MDA level was observed to be significantly high in diabetics with and without complication along with other parameters.
  20 5,285 832
Isolation and screening of microalgae from natural habitats in the midwestern United States of America for biomass and biodiesel sources
Keesoo Lee, Megan L Eisterhold, Fabio Rindi, Swaminathan Palanisami, Paul K Nam
July-December 2014, 5(2):333-339
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.136178  PMID:25097410
Native species of microalgae were isolated from natural water bodies in the Midwestern United States of America and were screened for the ultimate goal of mass cultivation in Missouri and the surrounding states, and for their potential as biomass and biodiesel sources. A number of different nutrient media recipes were utilized to isolate the maximum number of colonies from each field samples. These nutrient recipes were modified in order to optimize the isolation and growth dynamics of specific colonies. All of the isolates were categorized based on the morphological appearance of the culture and the microscopic cellular appearance of the isolated colonies. Isolates included many common green microalgae and cyanobacteria. Lipid content was determined for selected strains that demonstrated relatively quick growth. Scenedesmus sp. that demonstrated the high growth rate, resistance to invasion, and contained sufficient amounts of lipid was investigated for its potential as a sustainable biomass and biodiesel feedstocks.
  19 5,369 1,321
Occupational exposure of dentists to electromagnetic fields produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons alters the serum cortisol level
S. M. J. Mortazavi, S Vazife-Doost, M Yaghooti, S Mehdizadeh, A Rajaie-Far
January-June 2012, 3(1):60-64
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.95958  PMID:22690053
Objectives : Some studies indicate that dentistry is one of the job categories with high potential exposure to elevated levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In spite of this, information on occupational exposure of dentists to these fields is scarce. Studies on other common sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) such as mobile base stations have shown alterations in the cortisol level following exposure of humans to these sources. The aim of this study is to compare the level of cortisol among dentists and dentistry students who are being occupationally exposed to EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitrons (case group) and among their counterparts who are not being exposed to these fields (control group). Materials and Methods : In this case-control study, blood samples were collected from 41 dentists and dentistry students, 21 of whom were exposed to EMFs emitted by cavitrons as the case group and 20 who were not exposed as the control group, twice; i.e. before work (at 8:30-9:30 a.m.) and after work (11:30-12:30 a.m.). The samples were coded and the serum cortisol level was investigated using the ELISA method (Cortisol AccuBind ELISA Kits). Results : The serum cortisol level of dentists and dental students in the morning (before starting the work) in the control group was 189.15 ± 110.70 (mean ± SD) whereas it was 157.77 ± 112.03 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.373). In contrast, the serum cortisol level of the participants in the noon (after stopping the work) in the control group was 136.25 ± 67.91 (mean ± SD) while it was 88.58 ± 52.83 in those who were occupationally exposed to EMFs produced by the use of cavitrons. This time, the observed difference was statistically significant (P = 0.016). In this light, while the difference between serum cortisol levels of dentists and dental students in the morning and after stopping the work was not statistically significant (P = 0.06), in the EMF-exposed group the cortisol level decreased significantly from 157.77 ± 112.03 in the morning to 88.58 ± 52.83 in the noon (P = 0.001). Conclusions : As far as we know, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of occupational exposure of dentists to EMFs on their serum cortisol level. The EMFs produced by magnetostrictive cavitrons can decrease the serum cortisol level in dentists. As cortisol plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, cardiovascular, and immune system function, a low cortisol level may threaten health. More studies are needed to clearly understand the effects of EMFs emitted by magnetostrictive cavitron on the level of stress hormones. As some studies have shown that exposure to EMFs has no effect on the cortisol level, whereas other studies reported either an increase or a decrease in the cortisol level, it can be concluded that the effects of exposure to EMFs may occur only at specific absorbed energies or energy absorption rates (usually known as window) similar to that exists in the case of exposure to the low doses of ionizing radiations.
  17 3,672 403
Acute respiratory infections among under-5 children in India: A situational analysis
Kalaiselvi Selvaraj, Palanivel Chinnakali, Anindo Majumdar, Iswarya Santhana Krishnan
January-June 2014, 5(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.127275  PMID:24678190
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading cause of death among children less than 5 years in India. Emergence of newer pathogenic organisms, reemergence of disease previously controlled, wide spread antibiotic resistance, and suboptimal immunization coverage even after many innovative efforts are major factors responsible for high incidence of ARI. Drastic reduction in the burden of ARI by low-cost interventions such as hand washing, breast feeding, availability of rapid and feasible array of diagnostics, and introduction of pentavalent vaccine under National Immunization Schedule which are ongoing are necessary for reduction of ARI.
  17 12,259 1,166
Orodispersible tablets: A new trend in drug delivery
Paramita Dey, Sabyasachi Maiti
July-December 2010, 1(1):2-5
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.71663  PMID:22096326
The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug-delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other oral formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to super disintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper peroral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method of preparation is the compression method. Other special methods are molding, melt granulation, phase-transition process, sublimation, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and effervescent method. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test, and dissolution test.
  16 8,122 1,735
Mirror neurons: Enigma of the metaphysical modular brain
Sourya Acharya, Samarth Shukla
July-December 2012, 3(2):118-124
DOI:10.4103/0976-9668.101878  PMID:23225972
Mirror neurons are one of the most important discoveries in the last decade of neuroscience. These are a variety of visuospatial neurons which indicate fundamentally about human social interaction. Essentially, mirror neurons respond to actions that we observe in others. The interesting part is that mirror neurons fire in the same way when we actually recreate that action ourselves. Apart from imitation, they are responsible for myriad of other sophisticated human behavior and thought processes. Defects in the mirror neuron system are being linked to disorders like autism. This review is a brief introduction to the neurons that shaped our civilization.
  16 7,967 2,465
* Source: CrossRef