Year : 2018 | Volume
: 9 | Issue : 2 | Page : 105-
Understanding the anatomy of inflammation for evidence-based localized targeting
Arun H S. Kumar
Editor in Chief, Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Arun H S. Kumar
Editor in Chief, Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin
|How to cite this article:|
S. Kumar AH. Understanding the anatomy of inflammation for evidence-based localized targeting.J Nat Sc Biol Med 2018;9:105-105
|How to cite this URL:|
S. Kumar AH. Understanding the anatomy of inflammation for evidence-based localized targeting. J Nat Sc Biol Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Apr 22 ];9:105-105
Available from: http://www.jnsbm.org/text.asp?2018/9/2/105/234693
Inflammation is the hallmark of all pathology, which can either have acute or chronic timeframe. It will be reasonable to state that any acute compromise in anatomy or physiology will progress with some form of inflammation, which may be localized or generalized. Inflammation is hence regarded as a body's first response self-defense mechanism to prevent further harm and create a localized environment, which may favor the reparative process. It is likely that a self-regulated inflammatory process is integral to body's reparative and regenerative process. However, inflammation is not always self-regulating, and on several occasions inflammation may persist for a longer duration, switching the balance toward more progressive harm than benefits. It is hence important to understand the biological differences between controlled and uncontrolled inflammation, to not only achieve optimal endogenous repair/regeneration but also to identify selective target/s to bring inflammation under control. For instance, the inflammatory processes at the interface of physiology and pathology will have potential to be developed as anti-inflammatory drugs, while the inflammatory processes at the interface of pathology and repair will have potential to develop novel class of proregeneration drugs or drugs enhancing regenerative therapy.
Inflammation is perhaps the most universal, diversified and versatile biological process. Inflammation is associated with various systemic regeneration/repair and any systemic pathology triggered by physical or biological factors. This diversity probably exists at various micro- and macro-anatomical regions, although our current understanding of this diversity is minimal due to technical limitations. The universality of inflammation in pathophysiology is further evident from anti-inflammatory drugs being the most widely used medical products globally. There is also considerable diversity in the availability of anti-inflammatory drugs, which range from prescription-only to over the counter availability. Despite these diversities, the undesired effects of most anti-inflammatory drugs on cardiovascular system and mucosal layer are a common observation, which imbalance their risk: benefit scale. Despite these risks, anti-inflammatory drugs remain the most widely used drugs worldwide. There will hardly be anyone who would not have consumed an anti-inflammatory medicine in their lifetime. One of the approach to reduce the risks associated with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs would be by limiting their systemic exposure by localized delivery. This is although easier said than done, warrant detailed understanding of the timeframe of inflammatory process at the various micro- and macro-anatomical regions together with the discovery of safer and target-specific anti-inflammatory drugs and their localized delivery platforms.
Arun H. S. Kumar