|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 291-293
Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair for coarctation of the aorta with dissecting aortic aneurysm: A rarity
Babu Reddy, HS Natraj Setty, BC Srinivas, Sandeep Shankar, Vijay Kumar, K Sathish, B Mahadevaswamy, Murali Krishna, CN Manjunath
Department of Cardiology, Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Research, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||20-Jun-2018|
H S Natraj Setty
#493, 4th Cross, 7th Main, J.P. Nagar 3rd Phase, Bengaluru - 560 069, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Endovascular procedures aim to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Repair is indicated for aneurysms that are the source of pain and tenderness, which may indicate an impending rupture. The options for repair include traditional open aortic surgery or endovascular repair. Endograft has been used in patients with aortic dissection, noting the extremely complex nature of open surgical repair in these patients, while the results have been excellent. Aneurysm formation is a significant complication after therapy for Coarctation of aorta (CoA). Aneurysms develop after surgical as well as transcatheter repair procedures of CoA. We report a rare case of coarctation of the aorta with dissecting aortic aneurysm who presented with sudden onset of chest pain radiating to back and dyspnea for 3 days. He successfully underwent balloon dilatation of coarctation segment followed by aortic stent-graft implantation. Uneventful during procedure prompts recovery on follow-up.
Keywords: Aneurysm, coarctation of the aorta, endovascular repair
|How to cite this article:|
Reddy B, Natraj Setty H S, Srinivas B C, Shankar S, Kumar V, Sathish K, Mahadevaswamy B, Krishna M, Manjunath C N. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair for coarctation of the aorta with dissecting aortic aneurysm: A rarity. J Nat Sc Biol Med 2018;9:291-3
|How to cite this URL:|
Reddy B, Natraj Setty H S, Srinivas B C, Shankar S, Kumar V, Sathish K, Mahadevaswamy B, Krishna M, Manjunath C N. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair for coarctation of the aorta with dissecting aortic aneurysm: A rarity. J Nat Sc Biol Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Feb 17];9:291-3. Available from: http://www.jnsbm.org/text.asp?2018/9/2/291/234696
| Introduction|| |
The incidence of spontaneous dissection in coarctation of the aorta is 0.7%. The incidence of dissection of the aorta after balloon dilatation of coarctation is 17%. Aneurysm formation is a significant complication after therapy for Coarctation of aorta (CoA). Aneurysms develop after surgical as well as transcatheter repair procedures of CoA. The reported prevalence of aneurysms after surgical repair of CoA is between 11% and 24%. The incidence is reported to increase with advancing interval after surgical or transcatheter therapy. Aneurysm development occurs independent of the surgical technique and has now been described after nearly every technique, including resection and end-to-end anastomosis, subclavian patch repair, and synthetic onlay patch repair. Aortic replacements using synthetic vascular grafts have historically been the primary options for treatment of aortic aneurysms, thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) as the principal minimally invasive alternative to open surgery.
| Case Report|| |
A 31-year-old male patient presented with sudden onset of chest pain radiating to back and dyspnea (NYHA class II) for 3 days. On examination, pulse 90/m, B/L lower limb, and femoral pulses On examination, pulse 90/m, bilateral lower limb and femoral pulses are absent. At presentation, right upper limb 190/110 mm/Hg, left upper limb 170/100 mm/Hg, right lower limb 110/90 mm/Hg, left lower limb 112/90 mm/Hg. The routine investigation was normal. VDRL, HIV, and connective tissue profile were normal. Chest X-ray revealed mild cardiomegaly. Electrocardiography revealed left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Two-dimensional Echocardiography apical four-chamber view shows concentric LV hypertrophy, LV ejection fraction 60%, postsubclavian coarctation of the aorta gradient 80 mm/Hg, and aneurysm of descending thoracic aorta with dissection flap. CT aortogram revealed postsubclavian coarctation of the aorta and aneurysm of a poststenotic segment of descending aorta [Figure 1]. Dissection of the aorta in the poststenotic segment, the patient underwent balloon dilatation of coarctation segment followed by aortic stent-graft implantation to exclude the dissecting aortic aneurysm. Predilatation of coarctation segment was done with 14 mm × 40 mm Atlas balloon [Figure 2]a. Marker pigtail was used to take measurements; Valiant Captivia stent graft 30 × 30–150 cm was deployed distal left common carotid artery jailing the left subclavian artery. Postdilatation was done with 46 mm × 40 mm Reliant balloon [Figure 2]b. Following postprocedure, he continued to have back pain and then he underwent that aortogram revealed endovascular leak type 2 from left subclavian and branch of thyrocervical trunk. Subclavian artery closed with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device and endoleak type B was treated appropriately [Figure 3]a and [Figure 3]b. The patient improved symptomatically and is in 3-month follow-up, BP right upper limb 130/85 mm/Hg, right lower limb 140/85 mm/Hg on medications with ACEI, beta-blockers, and aspirin.
|Figure 1: Computed tomography aortogram showing postsubclavian coarctation of the aorta. Aneurysm of poststenotic segment of descending aorta. Dissection of the aorta in poststenotic segment|
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|Figure 2: (a) Aortogram showing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of coarctation with Atlas balloon. (b) Aortogram showing Valiant Captivia stent graft 30 mm × 150 mm deployed|
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|Figure 3: (a) Aortogram showing subclavian artery closed with patent ductus arteriosus device. (b) Computed tomography aortogram showing patent graft|
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| Discussion|| |
Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) is an emerging treatment modality, which has been rapidly embraced by clinicians treating thoracic aortic disease. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has become the preferred approach for the treatment of thoracic aortic pathology. Initially utilized in the treatment of aortic aneurysmal disease, TEVAR indications have expanded to include treatment of type B aortic dissection with malperfusion or rupture, traumatic aortic transection, and penetrating aortic ulcer. Numerous studies suggest that TEVAR is associated with decreased morbidity compared with open repair. Since the approval of the first thoracic endograft in 2005, thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has quickly become the treatment of choice for elective thoracic aortic aneurysm repair. The use of TEVAR has resulted in a decrease in both operative mortality and morbidity for patients with a wide variety of aortic pathologies. In addition, hospital length of stay is usually less following TEVAR. Appropriate inventories of endograft, as well as the full-time availability of a hybrid endovascular suite and team, are required. Currently, thoracic endovascular aortic repair is the first treatment of choice in patients with aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta, depending on the condition of the patient, demographic factors, and suitable anatomy for stent-graft deployment. Device delivery is also challenging since adequate access is required to accommodate the diameter of those devices. Management of endoleak at the time of the procedure: Type I: Endoleak at the proximal or distal seal zones is usually managed by additional ballooning or by placement of an extension graft. Type II: Retrograde flow from the intercostal arteries can usually be managed conservatively with follow-up imaging to ensure that the aneurysm sac does not continue to enlarge. Type III: Junctional endoleak is usually related to inadequate overlap between components. Management consists of relining of the junction with stent grafts to bridge the defect. Type IV: Leak due to graft porosity causes Type IV endoleak. This typically resolves once the procedural anticoagulation wears off.
| Conclusion|| |
TEVAR has become the preferred approach for patients with thoracic aortic pathology and anatomy amenable to endograft placement. Adequate seal zones, careful preoperative planning, and proper device sizing are critical to obtain a good result and limit complications. It is worth mentioning that all patients with CoA should undergo an integrated imaging assessment of the aortic arch and the ascending and descending aorta before and after coarctation stenting. The use of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging along with angiography plays a key role in assessing this aortic arch anomaly.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]