Table of Contents    
CASE REPORT
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 288-290  

Surgical correction of atresia ani et recti along with pervious urachus in sahiwal cow calves


Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, IAS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication20-Jun-2018

Correspondence Address:
Naresh K Singh
Associate Professor, TVCC, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, IAS, BHU, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jnsbm.JNSBM_226_17

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   Abstract 

Congenital atresia of intestines in anus and rectum part is commonly reported in newborn calves. This case report discusses cases of atresia ani et recti and its surgical correction. A circular incision was made on the bulge of the anus and patency of opening was maintained by the application of interrupted sutures. The animal's defecation improved slowly.

Keywords: Atresia ani, cow calves, patent urachus, surgical correction


How to cite this article:
Singh NK, Kumar A, Kumar P. Surgical correction of atresia ani et recti along with pervious urachus in sahiwal cow calves. J Nat Sc Biol Med 2018;9:288-90

How to cite this URL:
Singh NK, Kumar A, Kumar P. Surgical correction of atresia ani et recti along with pervious urachus in sahiwal cow calves. J Nat Sc Biol Med [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Oct 16];9:288-90. Available from: http://www.jnsbm.org/text.asp?2018/9/2/288/234715


   Introduction Top


Atresia of the intestine has been documented and reported in almost all species of animals.[1] However, the congenital malformation of anus and rectum has been reported to be relatively common among newborns.[2] Atresia of the intestine has been divided into four types. Mucosal blockage within the intestinal lumen has been categorized as type I. Proximal segment of the intestine terminates into blind end comes under Type II category. Type III, is similar to Type II, with a difference that herein only proximal and distal ends are completely separated. Multiple atresia sites have been categorized as Type IV. Among bovine population, the emergence of atresia has been considered as congenital anomalies and etiologically, the defective semen banking has been accounted to bring in the genital disorder in the population.

Patent urachus is a common condition frequently associated with omphalitis, particularly in calves. The condition arises due to a membranous urethral diaphragm that remains and prevents the closure of the urachus in a female calf and that leads to dribbling of urine at the site of the umbilicus. However, the condition involving atresia ani et recti along with patent urachus has rarely been reported. We are, therefore, reporting to discuss two such cases of atresia ani et recti coexistence with patent urachus in Sahiwal (SW) cow-calf and its surgical correction to relieve from the condition.

For the correction of atresia ani in domestic animals, different ways of surgical corrections have been practiced.[3] Any intestinal segment from the duodenum to the anus may be atretic. In bovines, the different sites wherein the intestinal part gets attached to form malformation leading to the condition such as atresia ani et jejuni,[1],[4] ileum,[5] coli,[1],[2],[4],[6],[7] or recti.[4],[8] Most commonly occurring abnormalities are atresia coli and atresia ani.[1],[4]

Moreover, this case also presents cases of atresia ani et recti along with the patent urachus in SW cow 3-day-old calves. The patent urachus in rare cases gets complicated by an ascending infection of the intraabdominal umbilical remnants.


   Case Report and Observation Top


A 3-day-old cow-calf (SW) breed was presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 with a complaint of nonpassage of feces since birth. On clinical examination, it was found that the calf was not having an anal opening [Figure 1]. There was a soft subcutaneous swelling which used to bulge and reduce due to abdominal respiration. This soft subcutaneous swelling was located below the ischial arch with the distension of abdomen. The signs of tenesmus and abdominal pain were prominently observed. The case was diagnosed as atresia ani et recti condition, and surgical intervention was planned as to provide relief and correction to the animal.
Figure 1: Surgical correction of atresia ani et recti (a-c) and patent urachus (d-f)

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Treatment

The calf was restrained in the lateral recumbency with its hind quarter raised high on a table. The perineal region below the base of the tail was prepared for aseptic surgery. Local infiltration anesthesia was performed using injection 2% lignocaine hydrochloride at the proposed site of the incision. A circular incision was made on the bulge of the anus and circular piece of incised skin was removed. Muconium came out immediately. The patency of opening was maintained by application of interrupted sutures by black braided silk # 2 between rectal mucosa and skin to make a permanent anal orifice [Figure 2]. To remove that patent urachus we surgically opened the umbilical cord and identified the urachus. After properly holding the urachus, we ligated it at two points with catgut no. 2 and then instilled 2 ml of phenyl into the urachus to enhance the obliteration of the urachus immediately [Figure 1]. Postoperatively, the surgical wound at both sites were cleaned and dressed regularly with liquid povidone iodine and ointment acrillin was applied daily until recovery, and injection gentamycin 3 ml was given by intramuscular route daily for 5 days. An antibiotic therapy was followed for 5 days. The sutures were removed on the day 10 postsurgery.
Figure 2: Normal defecation and urination in cow calf (a,c) from natural orifices after surgical correction of atresia ani et recti (a) and patent urachus (b)

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   Results and Discussion Top


The calf was relieved soon after the surgery and marked improvement in defecation and overall behavior was noticed from day 2 of the surgery and there was uneventful recovery within 12 days post operatively. The present case of atresia ani was involving rectum and hence, the medically the condition was termed as atresia ani et recti. After opening the anal wall, the rectum was held with the artery forceps and was cut to detach the rectum from the adjacent body wall. The portion of the rectum was then sutured carefully with the mucosal wall of the anal opening that was surgically created. Simple interrupted sutures were put in the pattern of ring. Mostly, such conditions are observed soon after the birth of the calf and sooner the owner realizes that the newborn has not yielded any muconium. The primary clinical signs in such conditions are dribbling of urine from the umbilical region and the straining, tenesmus, colic, depression, and anorexia with abdominal distension. The diagnosis of atresia ani et recti is often presumptive based on the age, history and physical examinations. Atresia ani et recti can be diagnosed by visual inspection of the perineal region or by limited digital palpation if a vestigial anal opening is present. Surgical intervention is the only technique of choice for the treatment in such acute abdominal discomfort and it was attempted successfully in this present case. In both the calves, dribbling of urine from the umbilical cord was seen and after the surgical correction, both the calves showed proper urination after 12 h [Figure 2].

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to the Faculty of Veterinary and Animals, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005 for rendering all help to Teaching Veterinary and Clinical Complex for smooth functioning.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
van der Gaag I, Tibboel D. Intestinal atresia and stenosis in animals: A report of 34 cases. Vet Pathol 1980;17:565-74.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dreyfuss DJ, Tulleners EP. Intestinal atresia in calves: 22 cases (1978-1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;171:433-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Jubb KV, Kennedy PC, Palmer N. Pathology of Domestic Animals. 4th ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1993.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Nixon MM. Anorectal anomalies with an international proposed classification. Postgrad Med 1972;10:11-127.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Johnson R, Ames NK, Coy C. Congenital intestinal atresia of calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1983;182:1387-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Clark WT, Cox JE, Birtles MJ. Atresia of the small intestine in lambs and calves. N Z Vet J 1978;26:120-2.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Jubb KV, Kennedy PC. Pathology of Domestic Animals. 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press Inc.; 1970.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Nair S. Atresia ani with rectovaginal fistula in a calf – A case report. Indian Vet J 1972;49:528-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]



 

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