Table of Contents    
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 272-275  

Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds


School of Biological Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, India

Date of Web Publication26-Aug-2013

Correspondence Address:
Shyamasree Ghosh
National Institute of Science Education and Research, Institute of Physics Campus, Sachivalaya Marg PO, Sainik School, Bhubaneswar - 751 005
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: National Institute of Science, Education and Research (NISER), Bhubaneswar, DAE, Govt. of India, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0976-9668.116964

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

With the expansion of the world population, the environmental pollution and toxicity by chemicals raises concern. Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of pollutants such as pesticides, petroleum products, acids and heavy metals in the natural resources like soil, water and air thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting both plants and animals. Heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt, chromium and mercury are important environmental pollutants that cause toxic effects to plants; thus, lessening productivity and posing dangerous threats to the agro-ecosystems. They act as stress to plants and affect the plant physiology. In this review, we have summarized the effects of heavy metals on seeds of different plants affecting the germination process. Although reports exist on mechanisms by which the heavy metals act as stress and how plants have learnt to overcome, the future scope of this review remains in excavating the signaling mechanisms in germinating seeds in response to heavy metal stress.

Keywords: Germination, heavy metals, stress, seed


How to cite this article:
Sethy SK, Ghosh S. Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds. J Nat Sc Biol Med 2013;4:272-5

How to cite this URL:
Sethy SK, Ghosh S. Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds. J Nat Sc Biol Med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Aug 20];4:272-5. Available from: http://www.jnsbm.org/text.asp?2013/4/2/272/116964


   Introduction Top


Soil is a valuable and non-renewable resource essential for germination of seeds, survival and growth of plants thus supporting every live form on earth. However in the modern world, numerous soil pollutants restrict the growth of plants. Abiotic stress factors including salinity, drought, extreme temperatures, chemical toxicity and oxidative stress from the environment are the major causes of worldwide crop loss that pose serious threats to agricultural produce. With the ongoing technological advancements in industrialization and urbanization process, release of toxic contaminants like heavy metals in the natural resources has become a serious problem worldwide. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility.

Presence of heavy metals, like nickel, cobalt, cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury in air, soil and water can cause bioaccumulation affecting the entire ecosystem and pose harmful health consequences in all life forms. The major sources of pollution in the state of Odisha in India are overburdens of mine, industrial effluent, fertilizers and pesticides, extra salts and elements that degrade the soil quality. [1] Metals and chemicals in higher concentration hamper the plant germination, growth and production mainly associated with the physiological, biochemical and genetic elements of the plant system.

In the mining areas located in the districts of Jajpur, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts of Odisha in India, nearly 45% to 67% of iron and 45% to 54% of chromium contamination are reported. [1] This high concentration of salts and metals acts as stress to plants affecting the yield of crops and viability of flora and fauna adversely not only in the area of location but all adjoining areas by spreading thus raising concern. The major effects of heavy metals on seeds [Figure 1] are manifested by overall abnormalities and decrease in germination, reduced root and shoot elongation, dry weight, total soluble protein level, [2] oxidative damage, membrane alteration, altered sugar and protein metabolisms, nutrient loss [3],[4] all contributing to seed toxicity and productivity loss. The heavy metal toxicity on Arabidopsis manifested by decreased seed germination rate was reported in the order of Hg>Cd>Pb>Cu. [5]
Figure 1: Different effects of heavy metals on seed germination

Click here to view


Although reports exist over effect of the metal toxicity on plants, very few reports exist on how heavy metals affect seed physiology. While keeping in mind the rising concerns over heavy metal stress affecting agriculture produce, in this review we focus our attention to the effect of different heavy metals on seeds of different plants affecting germination.

Effect of heavy metals on seeds

Nickel (Ni) is reported to be toxic to most plant species affecting amylase, protease and ribonuclease enzyme activity thus retarding seed germination and growth of many crops. [3] It has been reported to affect the digestion and mobilization of food reserves like proteins and carbohydrates in germinating seeds, [3],[6] reducing plant height, root length, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content and enzyme carbonic anhydrase activity, and increasing malondialdehyde content (MDA) and electrolyte leakage. [7] Ni stress has been reported to affect photosynthetic pigments, lessen yield and cause accumulation of Na + , K + and Ca 2+ in mung bean. [8] The combination of Ni and NaCl in germinating seeds of Brassica nigra causes significant decline in growth, leaf water potential, pigments and photosynthetic machinery by increased electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, H 2 O 2 content, activity of anti-oxidative enzymes and the level of proline. It is also reported to decrease membrane stability and nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activity. [9]

Lead (Pb) has been reported to strongly affect the seed morphology and physiology. It inhibits germination, root elongation, seedling development, plant growth, transpiration, chlorophyll production, and water and protein content, causing alterations in chloroplast, obstructing electron transport chain, inhibition of Calvin cycle enzymes, impaired uptake of essential elements, Mg and Fe, and induced deficiency of CO 2 due to stomatal closure. [4] Pb toxicity has been reported to retard the radical emergence via enhanced protein and carbohydrate contents, affecting the activity of peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases, oxidizing ability of roots and overall lowering of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes-α-amylases, β-amylases, acid invertases and acid phosphatases, [10] and altering genomic DNA profile. [11] Pb-polluted soils have been shown to inhibit seedling growth via increased lipid peroxidation, and activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymes and the glutathione (GSH)-ascorbate cycle thus playing dominant role in removing H 2 O 2 . It also caused up-regulation of HSP70. Together with lipid peroxidation, HSP70 are reported to be markers for Pb-induced stress in soils. [12]

Copper (Cu) has been reported to be toxic to sunflower seedlings inducing oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by decreased catalase (CAT) activity via oxidation of protein structure. [13] Cu stress leads to reduced germination rate [13],[14],[15] and induces biomass mobilization by release of glucose and fructose thereby inhibiting the breakdown of starch and sucrose in reserve tissue by inhibition in the activities of alpha-amylase and invertase isoenzymes. [13] Metallothionein-like protein, membrane-associated protein-like protein, putative wall-associated protein kinase, pathogenesis-related proteins and the putative small GTP-binding protein Rab2, were up-regulated while cytochrome P450 (CYP90D2), thioredoxin and GTPase were down-regulated by Cu stress. [16] Cu toxicity generated oxidative stress by up-regulating antioxidant and stress-related proteins like glyoxalase I, peroxiredoxin, aldose reductase, and regulatory proteins like DnaK-type molecular chaperone, UlpI protease and receptor-like kinase thereby disruptive metabolic processes. Proteomics studies has revealed that Cu toxicity inhibit seed germination by down-regulating activity of alpha-amylase or enolase. It has been reported to affect overall metabolism, water uptake and failure to mobilize reserve food. [17]

Cadmium (Cd) has been shown to cause delay in germination, induce membrane damage, impair food reserve mobilization by increased cotyledon/embryo ratios of total soluble sugars, glucose, fructose and amino acids, [18] mineral leakage leading to nutrient loss, [19] accumulation in seeds and over-accumulation of lipid peroxidation products [20],[21] in seeds. It has been reported to reduce the germination percent, embryo growth and distribution of biomass, and inhibit the activities of alpha-amylase and invertases: Soluble acid (INV-AS), soluble neutral (INV-NS), cell wall bound acid (INV-AW), impair membrane integrity by high MDA content and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, [19] reduce water content, shoot elongation and biomass. [20] Cd toxicity led to stimulated expression of Gpx (a thioredoxin-dependent enzyme in plants) and a drastic reduction in glutathione reductase (GR) activity thereby modulating the level of thiol during the germination. [21] Cd has been reported to impair mitochondrial functioning by altering redox regulation via levels of glutaredoxin (Grx), glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cotyledons and the embryo. [21] Cd toxicity leading to up-regulated protein synthesis of the defense and detoxification, antioxidant and germination processes is reported [20] Cobalt (Co) has been reported to induce DNA methylation in Vicia faba seeds. [22]

Plant strategies to overcome heavy metal stress

Plants have evolved strategies to combat heavy metal stress. A few studies have reported the genetic and biochemical elements in plants helping them overcome heavy metal stress. The toxic effects of Cr manifested by reduced growth, lowered contents of chlorophyll, protein, proline, increased MDA content and elevated metal uptake were reported to be overcome by plant hormone 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) belonging to brassinosteroids (BRs) group via regulation of antioxidant enzymes. [23] Overproduction f glyoxylase enzymes GLY I and/or GLY II enzymes that detoxify methyl-glyoxal in Arabidopsis transgenic plants have been reported to provide tolerance toward salinity and heavy metal stresses. [24] The gene CDR3 isolated from Cd-resistant Arabidopsis plant indicated their role in the regulation of heavy metal resistance as well as seed development and flowering by increased expression of GSH1 gene leading to GSH synthesis and increased GSH content. [25] ACBP1 has been reported to enable tolerance to Pb toxicity in Arabidopsis.[26] Regulated expression of sulfur metabolism by ATP sulfurylase (APS) and adenosine 5' phosphosulfate reductase (APR), up-regulated expression of Ser acetyl transferase (SAT) and O-acetyl-ser (thiol)-lyase (OASTL) are reported to enable plants overcome Cd toxicity. Glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCS) and glutathione synthetase (GS) over-expression has been reported to catalyze GSH synthesis from Cys, and is reported to improve Cd tolerance in plant. Phytochelatin synthase (PCS), activated plant antioxidative system, metal transporter genes also have been reported to contribute to Cd tolerance. [27]


   Discussion Top


Although plant defense strategies exist to cope with heavy metal toxicity via reduced uptake into the cell, sequestration into vacuoles by the formation of complexes, binding by phytochelatins, synthesis of osmolytes, activation of various antioxidants to combat ROS, altered expression of enzymes, overexpression of genes exist, [1],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28] mechanisms by which germinating seeds combat heavy metal stress remains largely unknown. The future scope of this review remains in understanding the biochemistry of heavy metal toxicity in germinating seeds. Understanding such strategies in seeds to overcome such stress and manipulation of pathways and biomolecules involved will lead to better agricultural produce despite heavy metal toxicity from contaminated soil.


   Acknowledgment Top


The study was conducted in the facility of SBS, NISER, Bhubaneswar, India. Dr. Shyamasree Ghosh is the Scientific Officer (E), School of Biological sciences (SBS), NISER and Mr. Sunil Kumar Sethy is an Inegrated MSc Student in SBS, NISER . Both authors express their gratitude to The School of Biological Sciences, NISER.

 
   References Top

1.Sahu SK, Pradhan KC, Sarangi, Soil Pollution in Orissa. Orissa Review. September 2004.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A. Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: Towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 2003;218:1-14.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Ahmad MS, Ashraf M. Essential roles and hazardous effects of nickel in plants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2011;214:125-67.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.Pourrut B, Shahid M, Dumat C, Winterton P, Pinelli E. Lead uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 2011;213:113-36.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Li W, Mao R, Liu X. Effects of stress duration and non-toxic ions on heavy metals toxicity to Arabidopsis seed germination and seedling growth. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2005;16:1943-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Ashraf MY, Sadiq R, Hussain M, Ashraf M, Ahmad MS. Toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on growth and metabolism in germinating seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;143:1695-703.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Siddiqui MH, Al-Whaibi MH, Basalah MO. Interactive effect of calcium and gibberellin on nickel tolerance in relation to antioxidant systems in Triticum aestivum L. Protoplasma 2011;248:503-11.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Ahmad MS, Hussain M, Saddiq R, Alvi AK. Mungbean: A nickel indicator, accumulator or excluder? Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2007;78:319-24.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Yusuf M, Fariduddin Q, Varshney P, Ahmad A. Salicylic acid minimizes nickel and/or salinity-induced toxicity in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) through an improved antioxidant system. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2012;19:8-18.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Singh HP, Kaur G, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Lead (Pb)-inhibited radicle emergence in Brassica campestris involves alterations in starch-metabolizing enzymes. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;144:1295-301.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.Mohamed HI. Molecular and biochemical studies on the effect of gamma rays on lead toxicity in cowpea (Vigna sinensis) plants. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;144:1205-18.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]    
12.Wang C, Tian Y, Wang X, Geng J, Jiang J, Yu H, et al. Lead-contaminated soil induced oxidative stress, defense response and its indicative biomarkers in roots of Vicia faba seedlings. Ecotoxicology 2010;19:1130-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]    
13.Pena LB, Azpilicueta CE, Gallego SM. Sunflower cotyledons cope with copper stress by inducing catalase subunits less sensitive to oxidation. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2011;25:125-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]    
14.Sfaxi-Bousbih A, Chaoui A, El Ferjani E. Copper affects the cotyledonary carbohydrate status during the germination of bean seed. Biol Trace Elem Res 2010;137:110-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]    
15.Singh D, Nath K, Sharma YK Response of wheat seed germination and seedling growth under copper stress. J Environ Biol 2007;28:409-14.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Ahsan N, Lee DG, Lee SH, Kang KY, Lee JJ, Kim PJ, Yoon HS, Kim JS, Lee BH. Excess copper induced physiological and proteomic changes in germinating rice seeds. Chemosphere 2007;67:1182-93.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]    
17.Zhang H, Lian C, Shen Z. Proteomic identification of small, copper-responsive proteins in germinating embryos of Oryza sativa. Ann Bot 2009;103:923-30.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]    
18.Rahoui S, Chaoui A, El Ferjani E. J Membrane damage and solute leakage from germinating pea seed under cadmium stress. Hazard Mater 2010;178:1128-31.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Sfaxi-Bousbih A, Chaoui A, El Ferjani E. Cadmium impairs mineral and carbohydrate mobilization during the germination of bean seeds. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2010;73:1123-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]    
20.Ahsan N, Lee SH, Lee DG, Lee H, Lee SW, Bahk JD, et al. Physiological and protein profiles alternation of germinating rice seedlings exposed to acute cadmium toxicity. C R Biol 2007;330:735-46.  Back to cited text no. 20
[PUBMED]    
21.Smiri M, Chaoui A, Rouhier N, Gelhaye E, Jacquot JP, El Ferjani E. Cadmium affects the glutathione/glutaredoxin system in germinating pea seeds. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;142:93-105.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]    
22.Rancelis V, Cesniene T, Kleizaite V, Zvingila D, Balciuniene L. Influence of cobalt uptake by Vicia faba seeds on chlorophyll morphosis induction, SOD polymorphism, and DNA methylation. Environ Toxicol 2012;27:32-41.  Back to cited text no. 22
[PUBMED]    
23.Sharma I, Pati PK, Bhardwaj R. Effect of 28-homobrassinolide on antioxidant defence system in Raphanus sativus L. under chromium toxicity. Ecotoxicology 2011;20:862-74.  Back to cited text no. 23
[PUBMED]    
24.Mustafiz A, Singh AK, Pareek A, Sopory SK, Singla-Pareek SL. Genome-wide analysis of rice and Arabidopsis identifies two glyoxalase genes that are highly expressed in abiotic stresses. Funct Integr Genomics 2011;11:293-305.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Wang Y, Zong K, Jiang L, Sun J, Ren Y, Sun Z, et al. Characterization of an Arabidopsis cadmium-resistant mutant cdr3-1D reveals a link between heavy metal resistance as well as seed development and flowering. Planta 2011;233:697-706.  Back to cited text no. 25
[PUBMED]    
26.Xiao S, Gao W, Chen QF, Ramalingam S, Chye ML. Overexpression of membrane-associated acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP1 enhances lead tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant J 2008;54:141-51.  Back to cited text no. 26
[PUBMED]    
27.Zhang J, Shu WS. Mechanisms of heavy metal cadmium tolerance in plants. Zhi Wu Sheng Li Yu Fen Zi Sheng Wu Xue Xue Bao 2006;32:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 27
[PUBMED]    
28.DalCorso G, Farinati S, Furini A. Regulatory networks of cadmium stress in plants. Plant Signal Behav 2010;5:663-7.  Back to cited text no. 28
[PUBMED]    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]


This article has been cited by
1 Chromium-reducing and phosphate-solubilizing Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteria from the heavy metal-contaminated soil of the Brass city, Moradabad, India
M. Oves,M. S. Khan,H. A. Qari
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 The effect of hydro and proline seed priming on growth, proline and sugar content, and antioxidant activity of maize under cadmium stress
Erna Karalija,Alisa Selovic
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae and mercury on Lactuca sativa (Asteraceae) seedling morpho – histology
Carlos Fernando Vargas Aguirre,Fredy Arvey Rivera Páez,Sebastián Escobar Vargas
Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Changes in the phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, total phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in Prosopis glandulosa treated with cadmium and copper
DANIEL GONZÁLEZ-MENDOZA,ROSALBA TRONCOSO-ROJAS,TANIA GONZALEZ-SOTO,ONECIMO GRIMALDO-JUAREZ,CARLOS CECEŃA-DURAN,DAGOBERTO DURAN-HERNANDEZ,FEDERICO GUTIERREZ-MICELI
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Cięncias. 2018; 90(2): 1465
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Acute Lethal Toxicity of Heavy Metals to the Seeds of Plants of High Importance to Humans
Kamila Pokorska-Niewiada,Monika Rajkowska-Mysliwiec,Mikolaj Protasowicki
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 The ameliorative effects of exogenously applied proline on physiological and biochemical parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop under copper stress condition
Sibgha Noreen,Muhammad Salim Akhter,Tayyaba Yaamin,Muhammad Arfan
Journal of Plant Interactions. 2018; 13(1): 221
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Effects of Cu 2+ on alkaline phosphatase from Macrobrachium rosenbergii
Zhi-Jiang Wang,Wenming Ma,Jun-Mo Yang,Yani Kang,Yong-Doo Park
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Effects of copper and arsenic stress on the development of Norway spruce somatic embryos and their visualization with the environmental scanning electron microscope
Biljana Đordevic,Vilém Nedela,Eva Tihlaríková,Václav Trojan,Ladislav Havel
New Biotechnology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Environmental pollution induced by heavy metal(loid)s from pig farming
Zemeng Feng,Hanhua Zhu,Qifeng Deng,Yumin He,Jun Li,Jie Yin,Fengxian Gao,Ruilin Huang,Tiejun Li
Environmental Earth Sciences. 2018; 77(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Heavy Metals Scavenging Potential of Trichoderma asperellum and Hypocrea nigricans Isolated from Acid Soil of Jharkhand
Sudarshan Maurya,Sudarshan Rashk-E-Eram,S. K. Naik,J. S. Choudhary,S. Kumar
Indian Journal of Microbiology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Compared the physiological response of two petroleum tolerant-contrasting plants to petroleum stress
Hui Ma,Ao Wang,Menghua Zhang,Haoge Li,Sisi Du,Liping Bai,Shuisen Chen,Ming Zhong
International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2018; 20(10): 1043
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Growth Responses and Photosynthetic Indices of Bamboo Plant (Indocalamus latifolius) under Heavy Metal Stress
Abolghassem Emamverdian,Yulong Ding,Farzad Mokhberdoran,Yinfeng Xie
The Scientific World Journal. 2018; 2018: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Phytohormone Priming: Regulator for Heavy Metal Stress in Plants
Oksana Sytar,Pragati Kumari,Saurabh Yadav,Marian Brestic,Anshu Rastogi
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Ameliorating Nickel Stress by Jasmonic Acid Treatment in Zea mays L.
U. Azeem
Russian Agricultural Sciences. 2018; 44(3): 209
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Assessment of heavy metal induced stress responses in pea (Pisum sativum L.)
Abdul Majeed,Zahir Muhammad,Saira Siyar
Acta Ecologica Sinica. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Feasibility of the UV/AA process as a pretreatment approach for bioremediation of dye-laden wastewater
Minghui Yang,Bingdang Wu,Qiuhao Li,Xiaofeng Xiong,Haoran Zhang,Yu Tian,Jiawen Xie,Ping Huang,Suo Tan,Guodong Wang,Li Zhang,Shujuan Zhang
Chemosphere. 2018; 194: 488
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Changes of photochemical efficiency and epidermal polyphenols content of Prosopis glandulosa and Prosopis juliflora leaves exposed to cadmium and copper
Daniel Gonzalez-Mendoza,Vianey Mendez-Trujillo,Onecimo Grimaldo-Juarez,Carlos Ceceńa-Duran,Olivia Tzintzun-Camacho,Federico Gutierrez-Miceli,Gabriela Sanchez-Viveros,Monica Aviles Marin
Open Life Sciences. 2017; 12(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Heavy metals impact at plants using photoacoustic spectroscopy technology with tunable CO 2 laser in the quantification of gaseous molecules
Cristina Popa,Mioara Petrus
Microchemical Journal. 2017; 134: 390
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Evaluation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO 1) in Cd and Ni induced cytotoxicity and crosstalk with ROS quenching enzymes in two to four leaf stage seedlings of Vigna radiata
Lovely Mahawar,Rajesh Kumar,Gyan Singh Shekhawat
Protoplasma. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Kinnow mandarin plants grafted on tetraploid rootstocks are more tolerant to Cr-toxicity than those grafted on its diploids one
Rashad Mukhtar Balal,Muhammad Adnan Shahid,Christopher Vincent,Licoln Zotarelli,Guodong Liu,Neil Scott Mattson,Bala Rathinasabapathi,Juan Jose Martínez-Nicolas,Francisco Garcia-Sanchez
Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2017; 140: 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil
Veronica Mpode Ngole-Jeme,Peter Fantke,Jorge Paz-Ferreiro
PLOS ONE. 2017; 12(2): e0172517
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Plant growth promotion by Bradyrhizobium japonicum under heavy metal stress
M. Seneviratne,S. Gunaratne,T. Bandara,L. Weerasundara,N. Rajakaruna,G. Seneviratne,M. Vithanage
South African Journal of Botany. 2016; 105: 19
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Effects of different treatments of fly ash and mining soil on growth and antioxidant protection of Indian wild rice
Sidhanta Sekhar Bisoi,Swati S. Mishra,Jijnasa Barik,Debabrata Panda
International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2016; : 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Combined ability of chromium (Cr) tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and salicylic acid (SA) in attenuation of chromium stress in maize plants
Faisal Islam,Tahira Yasmeen,Muhammad Saleem Arif,Muhammad Riaz,Sher Muhammad Shahzad,Qaiser Imran,Irfan Ali
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2016; 108: 456
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Bacterial inoculants for enhanced seed germination of Spartina densiflora: Implications for restoration of metal polluted areas
Karina I. Paredes-Páliz,Eloísa Pajuelo,Bouchra Doukkali,Miguel Ángel Caviedes,Ignacio D. Rodríguez-Llorente,Enrique Mateos-Naranjo
Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Pre-treatment of seeds with salicylic acid attenuates cadmium chloride-induced oxidative damages in the seedlings of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)
Aryadeep Roychoudhury,Srijita Ghosh,Saikat Paul,Sukanya Mazumdar,Ganginee Das,Subhankari Das
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 2016; 38(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Hydro and halo priming: influenced germination responses in wheat Var-HUW-468 under heavy metal stress
Mahesh Kumar,Bhawna Pant,Sananda Mondal,Bandana Bose
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 2016; 38(9)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Nanostructured Materials of Titanium Dioxide Doped with Silver and/or Copper and Their Effects onArabidopsis thaliana
Cristina Garcidueńas-Pińa,Iliana E. Medina-Ramírez,Plinio Guzmán,Roberto Rico-Martínez,José Francisco Morales-Domínguez,Isidoro Rubio-Franchini
International Journal of Photoenergy. 2016; 2016: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 A review on exposure and effects of arsenic in passerine birds
P. Sánchez-Virosta,S. Espín,A.J. García-Fernández,T. Eeva
Science of The Total Environment. 2015; 512-513: 506
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response
Abolghassem Emamverdian,Yulong Ding,Farzad Mokhberdoran,Yinfeng Xie
The Scientific World Journal. 2015; 2015: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 The Inhibitory Effects of Cu2+ on Exopalaemon carinicauda Arginine Kinase via Inhibition Kinetics and Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Yue-Xiu Si,Jinhyuk Lee,Shang-Jun Yin,Xiao-Xu Gu,Yong-Doo Park,Guo-Ying Qian
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2015; 176(4): 1217
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of cadmium on seedling growth, amylases and phosphatases activity in germinating barley seeds
Tawba Kalai,Donia Bouthour,Jamel Manai,Leila Bettaieb Ben Kaab,Houda Gouia
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 2015; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Enhancing phytoremediation of chromium-stressed soils through plant-growth-promoting bacteria
Munees Ahemad
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. 2015; 13(1): 51
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Plant chitinase responses to different metal-type stresses reveal specificity
Patrik Mészáros,Lubomír Rybanský,Nadine Spieß,Peter Socha,Roman Kuna,Jana Libantová,Jana Moravcíková,Beáta Piršelová,Pavol Hauptvogel,Ildikó Matušíková
Plant Cell Reports. 2014; 33(11): 1789
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Generation of expressed sequence tags under cadmium stress for gene discovery and development of molecular markers in chickpea
Rashmi Gaur,Sabhyata Bhatia,Meetu Gupta
Protoplasma. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Discussion
   Acknowledgment
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed6179    
    Printed97    
    Emailed3    
    PDF Downloaded2941    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 35    

Recommend this journal