|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 68-73
Ameliorating effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disorders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: Homeopathic remedy
Soumyajit Maiti, Kazi M Ali, Kishalay Jana, Kausik Chatterjee, Debasis De, Debidas Ghosh
Department of Bio Medical Laboratory Science and Management with Clinical Nutrition Unit (U.G.C. Funded Innovative Department), Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India
|Date of Web Publication||20-Feb-2013|
Department of Bio Medical Laboratory Science and Management, In charge of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Unit (U.G.C. Funded Innovative Department), Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Syzygium jambolanum (S jambolanum) is widely used in homeopathy for treating patients with diabetes mellitus. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the remedial effect of homeopathic drug S jambolanum on carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disorders on streptozotocin induced diabetic rat. Materials and Methods: Diabetes induction in Wistar strain rat was performed as per standard method using streptozotocin at the dose of 4 mg/100 gm body weight. Activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in hepatic tissue, and glycogen content in hepatic and muscular tissues were assessed biochemically following the standard protocols. Serum lipid profile level and activities of GOT and GPT in serum were measured as per standard method using specific kits. Results: The homeopathic drug, mother tincture of S jambolanum significantly decreased fasting blood glucose levels and improved carbohydrate metabolic key enzyme activities in hepatic tissue i.e., hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase in diabetic rats. Alongside, serum lipid profile biomarkers i.e., triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) levels were significantly ameliorated in homeopathic drug supplemented diabetic animals in compared with the untreated diabetic animal. Side by side, the S jambolanum has the capacity to attenuate diabetes induced hepatic injury in model animal, which has been assessed here by the recovery of GOT and GPT activities in serum of drug treated diabetic animal. Conclusion: The result of the present study indicated that the homeopathic drug S jambolanum (mother tincture) has a protective effect on diabetic induced carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disorders in STZ-induced diabetic animal.
Keywords: Anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic, homeopathic remedy, syzygium jambolanum
|How to cite this article:|
Maiti S, Ali KM, Jana K, Chatterjee K, De D, Ghosh D. Ameliorating effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disorders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: Homeopathic remedy. J Nat Sc Biol Med 2013;4:68-73
|How to cite this URL:|
Maiti S, Ali KM, Jana K, Chatterjee K, De D, Ghosh D. Ameliorating effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disorders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: Homeopathic remedy. J Nat Sc Biol Med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Aug 20];4:68-73. Available from: http://www.jnsbm.org/text.asp?2013/4/1/68/107263
| Introduction|| |
The frequency of diabetes was escalating rapidly worldwide, including developed and developing countries.  In India recent projection indicate that there is an alarming rise in prevalence of diabetes, which has one beyond epidemic form to a pandemic one.  In modern medicine, there is no satisfactory effective therapy to cure diabetes mellitus.  Synthetic oral hypoglycemic agents can produce a series of side effects including hematological, gastrointestinal reactions, hypoglycemic coma and disturbances in liver and kidney. 
Growing popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the public sector is reflected in the scientific community by an increased number of researches to assessing the efficacy of CAM.  Because this practice may be attributed to the professed outcome, negligible side effects or toxic contribution and comparatively cost effective than synthetic drugs.  Homeopathy is one of the most widespread alternative system of medicine based on the two cardinal principles "law of similarities" and "minimal dilution".  Homeopathy seeks to cure in accordance with natural laws of healing and uses medicine made from natural substances viz. animal, vegetable and mineral.  Some important homeopathic oral hypoglycaemic drugs are Rhus aromatica, Syzygium jambolanum, Uranium nitricum and Acid Phos.
In homeopathic Materia Medica, Syzygium jambolanum (S jambolanum) is described as a most useful remedy against diabetes mellitus. It has an immediate effect to manage the high blood sugar. No other remedy causes so marked degree in the diminution of sugar in the urine. 
Syzygium jambolanum (Family-Myrtaceae; commonly known as 'jambol fruit' or 'jamun') is common herb found in India, Pakistan, Southern Asia and Brazil.  Mother tincture of S jambolanum is widely used by homeopathy practitioners for diabetes management. Mother tincture (θ) is defined as the original tincture prepared with the aid of alcohol, directly from the crude drug. It is the precursor for the preparation of different potencies and the starting point for the production of homeopathic medicines.  The chemical composition of the seed extract has been recently reported by a study. It contains glycoside (Jamboline), tannin, ellagic acid and gallic acid as principal ingredients. 
Over the past few years, there has been an increase in the number of preclinical (in vitro and in vivo) studies aimed at evaluating the pharmacological activity and efficacy of homeopathic remedies. However, scientific studies on homeopathic remedy regarding its anti-diabetic mechanism of action is scanty.  Therefore, the present study has been conducted to ascertain the pharmacological activity of S jambolanum on STZ induced diabetic animal model in connection to explore the anti-diabetic mechanism of action. To fulfil this objective, different relevant biomarkers like carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities in hepatic tissue, glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle, serum level of lipid profile biomarkers as well as GOT and GPT activities in serum were assessed.
| Materials and Methods|| |
All the experimental activities were carried out at the Department of Bio-Medical Laboratory Science and Management, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India.
Healthy male Wistar strain albino rats, weighting between 140 and 160 g were used for this study. Rats were housed in our well ventilated animal house having six animals in polypropylene made cages and maintained standard condition with controlled temperature (25 ± 3°C), relative humidity (45 ± 5°C) and 12:12 h dark:light cycle. The animals were fed with standard laboratory diet and allowed to drinking water ad libitum. Experiments were conducted following the guidelines of our Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC).
STZ was purchased from Sigma, USA. Other chemicals like adenosine tri phosphate (ATP), nucleotide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), 2-[4-(2-Hydroxyethyl) 1-piperazinyl] ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Diagnostic Ltd. or Sisco Research Laboratory (SRL), India. Kits for the assessment of serum lipid profile level and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were purchased from Span Diagnostic Ltd. Surat, India.
Induction of diabetes
Rats were made diabetic by a single intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). , Diabetic state was confirmed on seventh day of STZ injection considering the measurement of FBG as relevant biomarker. Animals with FBG level more than 300 mg/dL were selected for this experiment.
The homeopathic remedy S jambolanum (θ), was purchased from 'Hahnemann Publishing Company (Hapco)', 165, Bepin Behari Ganguly Street, Kolkata, India. From this 1 ml of mother tincture of S jambolanum was finally diluted with 20 ml of double distilled water to make the stock solution. Each rat were fed 1 drop (0.06 ml) of S jambolanum twice a day from the stock solution using gavage. The drug feeding was made before food delivery in subsequent days till they were sacrificed for analysis.
To fulfil the aims of this study, animals were divided into four groups and each groups comprising of 6 rats. Group wise animal distribution was as follows:
Animals of this group were treated with 0.6 ml of diluted ethanol (vehicle) for 40 days at the time of mother tincture treatment to diabetic animals.
Animals of this group were given vehicle solution for 40 days at the same time.
Diabetic + S jambolanum
Animals of this group were treated with 0.06 ml of mother tincture of S jambolanum for 40 days.
The duration of the experiment was 40 days. On forty-first day, all the animals were sacrificed by decapitation. Blood was collected from dorsal aorta by a syringe, the serum was separated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 10 mins for the measurements of serum lipid profile level and activities of GOT and GPT in serum. The liver, kidney and skeletal muscle were dissected out and stored at -20°C for biochemical analysis of the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in hepatic tissue and for the quantification of glycogen in the concern hepatic and skeletal tissue.
| Experimental Parameters|| |
Fasting blood glucose level
Fasting blood glucose level in animals of all the groups were measured as per our reported method  by single touch glucometer (Bayer's Ascensia Entrust, Bayer, and Germany) on every tenth day.
Carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities
Activities of carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes i.e., hexokinase,  glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase  and glucose-6-phosphatase  in hepatic tissue were measured biochemically by recording OD using spectrophotometer.
Glycogen levels in liver and skeletal muscle were measured according to the standard method. 
Measurement of lipid profile
Serum lipid profile like serum levels of triglycerides (TG),  total cholesterol (TC),  low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc),  very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLc)  and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc)  were estimated biochemically using specific kits in this concern.
Biochemical assay of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities in serum
Activities of GOT and GPT in serum were measured according to the standard method using specific kits in this concern. 
All the data were represented as Mean ± SEM (n0 = 6). Analysis of the data was carried out by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons two tail 't' test using statistical software (Origin version 8.1). P values < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.
| Results|| |
Fasting blood glucose level
STZ induced diabetic animals resulted in a significant elevation ( P < 0.05) in fasting blood glucose levels (>300 mg/dL) in respect to untreated control animals. After the treatment of homeopathic remedy S jambolanum to diabetic animals for 40 days, a significant reduction ( P < 0.05) of fasting blood glucose level was noted in compare with untreated diabetic animals. During experimental period, on tenth day by 19.1%, twentieth day by 47.2%, thirtieth day by 60.0% and fortieth day by 69.4% reduction of fasting blood glucose level were observed in mother tincture of S jambolanum treated diabetic group which focused the antihyperglycemic efficacy of S jambolanum in STZ-induced diabetic animals [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Remedial effect of mother tincture of S jambolanum on blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Bars represent Mean ± SEM (n = 6). Bars with superscripts a, b, c differ from each other significantly at P < 0.05|
Click here to view
Carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities
STZ induced diabetic animals resulted in a significant diminution ( P < 0.05) in the activities of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with significant elevation ( P < 0.05) in glucose-6-phosphatase activity in hepatic tissue in respect to the untreated control. After treatment of the said drug to diabetic rats there was a significant recovery ( P < 0.05) in the activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic control [Figure 2],[Figure 3] and [Figure 4].
|Figure 2: Remedial effect of mother tincture of S jambolanum on hepatic and skeleto muscular hexokinase activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Bars represent mean ± S.E.M. (n = 6). Bars with superscripts a, b, c differ from each other significantly at P < 0.05|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Protective effect of mother tincture of S jambolanum on hepatic and skeletal muscular glucose-6-phosphate activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Bars represent mean ± S.E.M. (n = 6). Bars with superscripts a, b, c differ from each other significantly at P < 0.05|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Activities of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver and skeleto muscle in STZ-induced diabetic rats after the treatment of S jambolanum. Bars represent mean ± S.E.M. (n = 6). Bars with superscripts a, b, c differ from each other significantly at P < 0.05|
Click here to view
Serum lipid profile
Levels of serum TG, TC, LDLc and VLDLc were increased significantly ( P < 0.05) in STZ-induced diabetic group in respect to untreated control. After administration of the homeopathic drug to diabetic group of animals, a significant recovery ( P < 0.05) was noted towards the control. In homeopathic drug treated diabetic group of animals, serum HDLc level was resettled towards the control level significantly ( P < 0.05) [Table 1].
|Table 1: Effect of mother tincture of S jambolanum on serum lipid profiles in STZ-induced diabetic rats|
Click here to view
Quantity of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle which was decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) in diabetic group of animals in respect to untreated control was recovered significantly ( P < 0.05) after the drug treatment to diabetic animals [Figure 5].
|Figure 5: Glycogen level in metabolic tissues (liver and skeletal muscle) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Bars represent Mean ± SEM (n = 6). Bars with superscripts a, b, c differ from each other significantly, P < 0.05|
Click here to view
Levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities in eerum
Activities of GOT, GPT in serum were increased significantly (P < 0.05) in diabetic control group in respect to untreated control group of animals. Significant recoveries (P < 0.05) were observed in the activities of serum GOT and GPT in drug treated diabetic group when comparison was made with diabetic control group [Figure 6].
|Figure 6: Levels of serum GOT, GPT activities in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Bars represent Mean ± SEM (n = 6). Bars with superscripts a, b, c differ from each other significantly, P < 0.05|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
STZ-induced diabetes causes the partial destruction of β-cell of the islets which leads to insufficient release of insulin and there by increased blood glucose levels namely hyperglycemia.  Administration of homeopathic remedy S jambolanum to diabetic animals significantly reduced the elevated blood glucose level, may be due to the stimulatory effect of S jambolanum on remaining β-cells of the islets of Langerhans to produce insulin or regeneration of pancreatic β-cells, which is concur with other report in this line. 
The corrective effect of the S jambolanum was observed from the assessment of the activities of hepatic hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase those are significantly increased in mother tincture treated diabetic group, indicate the insulinotropic effect as these enzymes are regulated positively by insulin.  Significant decrease in the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase by this drug indicates insulinotropic effect of the drug as this enzyme is regulated negatively by insulin.  This result was supported from the increased levels of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle in mother tincture treated group.
The levels of serum lipid profile are usually elevated in diabetes mellitus and such an elevation represents the risk of coronary heart disease.  In the STZ-induced diabetes, the rise in blood glucose is accompanied by an increase in various blood lipids those are TG, TC, LDLc, VLDLc and HDLc levels. Treatment of S jambolanum recovered the blood lipids significantly which indicate its antihyperlipidemic efficacy. The effect of S jambolanum on diabetic hyperlipidemia may be due to the control of hyperglycemia, which is coincide with our previous reports , and by others. 
Activities of pathophysiological enzymes such as SGOT and SGPT which are hepatic marker enzymes, have leaked into the circulation during hepatocyte injury.  Hence, the observed increase in the activities of GOT and GPT in serum of diabetic rats may primarily be due to leakage of these enzymes from liver cytosol into bloodstream as a consequence of hepatic injury by STZ as proposed by other.  Oral administration of S jambolanum to diabetic rats significantly decreased the activities of these enzymes, suggesting the hepatoprotective nature of S jambolanum mother tincture in experimentally induced diabetic hepatic injury and this observation is supported by other researchers. 
There was a clear evidence from this study that homeopathic drug S jambolanum indeed positively protective effects on STZ induced diabetic rats. Recently, an elegant study demonstrated that ethanolic extract of S jambolanum has a great potential in therapeutic use as anti-diabetic drug. 
However, to explore the exact mechanism of action of S jambolanum on experimentally induced diabetes, more work is required in this line covering the molecular biological biosensors, which are presently underway. Finally, the present study convincingly demonstrated an ameliorative effect of mother tincture of S jambolanum on diabetic complication in STZ-induced diabetic animals.
| Acknowledgments|| |
The authors are indebted to Dr. Shyamapada Paul for the inspiration in this research work. We are gratefully acknowledged to Purusottam Homeo Pharmacy, Midnapore for their cooperation.
| References|| |
|1.||Hu FB. Globalization of diabetes: The role of diet, lifestyle and genes. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1249-57. |
|2.||Gupta OP, Phatak S. Pandemic trends in prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated coronary heart disease in India -their causes and prevention. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 2003;23:37-49. |
|3.||Ali KM, Chatterjee K, De D, Bera TK, Ghosh D. Efficacy of aqueous extract of seed of Holarrhena antidysenterica for the management of diabetes in experimental model rat: A correlative study with antihyperlipidemic activity. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2009;2:13-21. |
|4.||Prakasam A, Sethupathy S, Pugalendi KV. Antiperoxidative and antioxidant effects of Casearia esculenta root in STZ-induced diabetic rat. Yale J Biol Med 2005;78:15-23. |
|5.||Caulfield T, DeBow S. A systematic review of how homeopathy is represented in conventional and CAM peer reviewed journals. BMC Complement Altern Med 2005;5:12. |
|6.||Tayler JB, Triggle DJ. Comprehensive medicinal chemistry-II. Vol. 1. Global perspective, Text Book. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2006. p. 357. |
|7.||Hahnemann CF. Organon of medicine. In: Joseph R, editor. 5 th and 6 th ed. (1842). Haifa: Hoeopress Ltd; 1994. |
|8.||Bhanja KC. The homeopathic prescriber. Calcutta: Probartak Printing; 1967. |
|9.||Boericke W. Materia medica with repertory. 9 th ed. Santa Rosa, Calif, USA: Boericke and Tafel; 1927. |
|10.||Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:81-100. |
|11.||Verma PN, Vaid I. Encyclopedia of homeopathic pharmacopeia. New Delhi, India: B Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; 1995. p. 113. |
|12.||Shanbhag DA, Khandagale AN. Application of HPTLC in the standardization of a homoeopathic mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum. J Chem Pharm Res 2011;3:395-401. |
|13.||Jamaludin M, Budin SB, Ketharin T. Effects of homeopathy remedy Syzygium jambolanum on glucose level, lipid profile and histology of pancreas of streptozotocin induced diabetes rat. Rev Glob Med Healthc Res 2010;1:135-5. |
|14.||Mallick C, Chatterjee K, Mandal U, Ghosh D. Antihyperglycemic, antilipidperoxidative and antioxidative effects of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Ethiop Pharm J 2007;25:9-22. |
|15.||Chou AC, Wilson JE. Carbohydrate metabolism. In: Wood WA, editor. Methods in Enzymol. Vol. 13. New York: Academic Press; 1975. p. 20-1. |
|16.||Langdon RG. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from erythrocytes. In: Wood WA, editor. Methods in Enzymol. Vol. 9. New York: Academic Press; 1966. p. 126-31. |
|17.||Swanson MA. Glucose-6-phosphatase from liver. In: Colowick SP, Kaplan NO, editors. Methods in Enzymes. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press; 1955. p. 541-3. |
|18.||Sadasivam S, Manickam A. Biochemical Methods. 3 rd ed. New Delhi: New Age International Private Limited; 2008. p. 9-10. |
|19.||Desai SA, Mani UV, Lyer UM. Serum lipids, apolipoproteins and total antioxidant activity levels of obese, diabetic and hypertensive subjects in an industrial set up in Baroda, Gujarat, India. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 2002;22:91-9. |
|20.||Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem 1974;20:470-5. |
|21.||Friedewald WT, Levy KJ, Frederickson DS. Estimation of concentration of LDL in plasma without of preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499-502. |
|22.||Waenic RG, Albers JJ. A comprehensive evaluation of the heparin manganese precipitation procedure for estimating high density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Lipid Res 1978;19:65-76. |
|23.||Henry RJ, Chiamori M, Gonub OJ, Berkman S. Revised spectrophotometric methods for the determination of glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvate transaminase and lactic acid dehydrogenase. Am J Clin Pathol 1960;34:381-98. |
|24.||Gayathri M, Kannabiran K. Hypoglycemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 2008;28:6-10. |
|25.||Chauhan S, Nath N, Tule V. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Picrorhiza kurrooa rhizome extracts in diabetic rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2008;23:238-42. |
|26.||Kim HK, Kim MJ, Lyu ES, Shin DH. Improvement of diabetic complication by Hydrangea dulcis folium in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32:153-6. |
|27.||Maiti R, Das UK, Ghosh D. Attenuation of hyperglycaemia in STZ induced diabetic rats by aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:1172-6. |
|28.||Chatterjee K, Ali KM, Mallick C, Ghosh D. Antihyperglycemic, antioxidative activities of a formulated polyherbal drug MTEC (Modified) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. J Med Plants Res 2009;3:468-80. |
|29.||Chattopadhyay RR, Bandyopadhyay M. Effect of Azadirachta indica on serum lipid profile changes in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Afr J Biomed Res 2005;8:101-4. |
|30.||Kim JS, Ju JB, Choi CW, Kim SC. Hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of four Korean medicinal plants in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Am J Biochem Biotech 2006;2:154-60. |
|31.||El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, El-Naga N. Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2005;43:57-63. |
|32.||Rao Mahadeva US, Subramanian S. Biochemical evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Med Chem Res 2009;18:433-46. |
|33.||Samadder A, Chakraborty D, De A, Bhattacharyya SS, Bhadra K, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Possible signaling cascades involved in attenuation of alloxan-induced oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in mice by ethanolic extract of Syzygium jambolanum: Drug-DNA interaction with calf thymus DNA as target. Eur J Pharm Sci 2011;44:207-7. |
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]
|This article has been cited by|
||Grifola frondosa polysaccharides ameliorate lipid metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in high-fat diet fed rats
| ||Lu Li,Wei-Ling Guo,Wen Zhang,Jia-Xin Xu,Min Qian,Wei-Dong Bai,Yan-Yan Zhang,Ping-Fan Rao,Li Ni,Xu-Cong Lv |
| ||Food & Function. 2019; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Syzygium cumini leaf extract inhibits LDL oxidation, but does not protect the liproprotein from glycation
| ||Matheus M. dos Santos,Alessandro S. Prestes,Gabriel T. de Macedo,Assis Ecker,Rômulo P. Barcelos,Aline A. Boligon,Diego Souza,Andreza F. de Bem,João B.T. da Rocha,Nilda V. Barbosa |
| ||Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2018; 210: 69 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Therapeutic effect of vitamin B 3 on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and DNA damage in alloxan induced diabetic rat model
| ||K.M. Abdullah,Md Maroof Alam,Zarmin Iqbal,Imrana Naseem |
| ||Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018; 105: 1223 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Ameliorative effect of quercetin nanorods on diabetic mice: mechanistic and therapeutic strategies
| ||Md. Maroof Alam,K. M. Abdullah,Braj Raj Singh,Alim Hussain Naqvi,Imrana Naseem |
| ||RSC Adv.. 2016; 6(60): 55092 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|