Table of Contents    
CASE REPORT
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 203-205  

Double-layered closure of oroantral fistula using buccal fat pad and buccal advancement flap


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute Campus, Pillaiyarkuppam, Pondicherry, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sri Hasanamba Dental College and Hospital, Vidyanagar, Hassan, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Mahatma Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Dental Science, Pondicherry, India

Date of Web Publication3-Oct-2012

Correspondence Address:
Ramesh Candamourty
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Indira Gandhi Institute of Dental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute Campus, Pillaiyarkuppam, Pondicherry 607 402
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0976-9668.101930

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Some of the traditional methods that are being employed in the repair of oroantral communication can be broadly divided into local and distant flaps. Recently, because of various advantages, buccal fat pad is increasingly being employed in the repair of oroantral fistula and other oral defects worldwide. However, there are some problems that can be encountered while harvesting BFP which has to be taken care of. In this paper, we present a case with one of such problems, its management, and review of literature on the same.

Keywords: Buccal fat pad, buccal flap, oroantral fistula, oroantral communication


How to cite this article:
Candamourty R, Jain MK, Sankar K, Ramesh Babu M R. Double-layered closure of oroantral fistula using buccal fat pad and buccal advancement flap. J Nat Sc Biol Med 2012;3:203-5

How to cite this URL:
Candamourty R, Jain MK, Sankar K, Ramesh Babu M R. Double-layered closure of oroantral fistula using buccal fat pad and buccal advancement flap. J Nat Sc Biol Med [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Nov 12];3:203-5. Available from: http://www.jnsbm.org/text.asp?2012/3/2/203/101930


   Introduction Top


An oroantral communication (OAC) may develop as a complication of dental extractions, due to infection, sequelae of radiation therapy, trauma, and removal of maxillary cysts or tumors. [1],[2] OAC of less than 5 mm does not require any interventions and closes spontaneously. [3] OAC of more than 5 mm requires surgical treatment. Some of the traditional methods that are being employed in the repair of OAC include buccal advancement flaps, palatal rotation and palatal transposition flaps, tongue flaps, and nasolabial flaps. [1],[2],[3],[4] Recently, because of various advantages, buccal fat pad (BFP) is increasingly being employed in the repair of oroantral fistula (OAF) and other oral defects worldwide. [5] However, there are some problems that can be encountered while harvesting BFP which has to be taken care of. In this paper, we present a case with one of such problems, its management using BFP with buccal advancement flap and review of literature on the long-term effectiveness of the same.


   Case Report Top


A female patient of 32 years age reported to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery for the extraction of grossly destructed 26 due to dental caries. After several unsuccessful attempts with intra-alveolar extraction, the patient was taken for transalveolar extraction. During the process of open extraction, OAC of more than 1 cm was noted [Figure 1]. The patient was taken for transalveolar extraction to be followed by closure of OAC by BFP.
Figure 1: Oroantral communication of more than 1 cm

Click here to view


Operative procedure

After obtaining adequate local anesthesia using 2% lignocaine and 1:80,000 adrenaline, trapezoidal buccal mucoperiosteal flap was raised; removal of the palatal and distobuccal root was done. Now 1 cm vertical incision was made in the reflected periosteum posterior to the zygomatic buttress to allow exposure and advancement of the BFP [Figure 2] and [Figure 3] over the bony defect where it was sutured to the palatal mucosa. During the process of harvesting BFP, perforation was noted, hence a buccal advancement flap was utilized to cover the same. The flap was sutured in place with simple interrupted 3/0 polygalactin 910 sutures [Figure 4]. The incision was also closed over the bridge segment of the flap with sutures. The patient was warned against blowing the nose for 2 weeks. Antral tetrad consisting of antibiotic, (amoxicyllin 500 mg with clavunic acid 125 mg three times daily, and augmentin 625 mg) decongestant, antihistamine, and analgesics were prescribed for 3 days. The patient was followed-up for a duration of 3 months periodically at the regular intervals to evaluate for any postoperative complications like wound dehiscence, necrosis, infection, etc. Complete epithelization was observed with no postoperative complications.
Figure 2: Scoring of the periosteum under the zygomatic buttress to advance the buccal flap

Click here to view
Figure 3: Harvesting of buccal fat pad

Click here to view
Figure 4: Double-layered closure of OAC using BFP and buccal advancement flap

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


BFP has been used for various procedures other than closure of OAF because of numerous advantages and encouraging results. [2],[4] The advantages of BFP include that the location of the BFP is anatomically favorable, the ease and minimal dissection with which it can be harvested and mobilized, simplicity, versatility, excellent blood supply, low rate of complications, minimal to no donor site morbidity, a quick surgical technique due to fact that BFP is located in the same surgical field as the defects to be covered, a good rate of epithelialization and allows for replacement of the mucoperiosteal flap without loss of vestibular depth. [2],[3],[4],[5] The possibility of harvesting under local anesthesia can be considered as an added advantage, [2],[3],[4] and this advantage was utilized in this study.

Problems that can be noted while harvesting BFP ranges from perforation to shrinkage of BFP and one of which was noted in the present case. Egyedi [6] recommended coverage of the exposed BFP with a skin graft; however, previous reports have confirmed that epithelization of the flap does take place without split skin graft cover after 3-4 weeks of inset. [4],[5] Covering BFP with buccal flap in a combination technique does not provide any advantages. This is beneficial only when BFP is stretched excessively or is perforated. [7] We agree with them and also in our opinion wider and larger defects, i.e. defects larger than 5 × 1 cm 2 , can also be better managed with the use of BFP with buccal advancement flap than BFP alone. It is known that the BFP is larger in children and size varies among persons, and that it may be inadequate in some cases [8] which again indicates need of a combination technique.

It is worth noting that the use of BFP with buccal advancement flap (combination technique) in the literature is scarce. [8],[9] It provides more stability, can be used to cover BFP and as additional tissue for closure where there is a deficient BFP for closure. It can also be used in cases where a trapezoidal flap is raised for some reasons, cases with perforation and shrinkage of BFP. [8],[9],[10] In the present case, the trapezoidal flap was raised for the purpose of transalveolar extraction and a double-layered closure was done as there was perforation in the BFP during the process of harvesting. Also, the buccal flap need not be sutured to palatal tissue to avoid obliteration of the vestibule. It can be sutured to BFP at the desired site so that the vestibular depth is not altered to greater depth.

To conclude, double-layered closure using BFP with buccal advancement flap should be kept as a valuable option in mind in the management of OAC with few indications discussed above.

 
   References Top

1.Yilmaz T, Suslu AE, Gursel B. Treatment of oroantral fistula: Experience with 27 cases. Am J Otolaryngol 2003;24:221-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.Visscher SH, van Minnen B, Bos RR. Closure of oroantral communications: A review of literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2010;68:1384-91.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Lazow SK. Surgical management of the oroantral fistula: Flap procedures. Oper Tech Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;10:148-52.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Singh J, Prasad K, Lalitha RM, Ranganath K. Buccal pad of fat and its applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A review of published literature (February) 2004 to (July) 2009. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;110:698-705.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Adeyemo WL, Ogunlewe MO, Ladeinde AL, James O. Closure of oro-antral fistula with pedicled buccal fat pad: A case report and review of literature. Afr J Oral Health 2004;1:42-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Egyedi P. Utilization of the buccal fat pad for closure of oro-antral and/or oro-nasal communications. J Maxillofac Surg 1977;5:241-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.N. Samman, L.K. Cheung and H. Tideman, The buccal fat pad in oral reconstruction. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1993;22:2-6  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Fujimura N, Nagura H, Enomoto S. Grafting of the buccal fat pad into palatal defects. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 1990;18:219-22.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Batra H, Jindal G, Kaur S. Evaluation of different treatment modalities for closure of oro-antral communications and formulation of a rational approach. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2010;9:13-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Pandolfi PJ, Yavuzer R, Jackson IT. Three layer closure of an oroantralcutaneous defect. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2000;29:24-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]


This article has been cited by
1 Complications associated with the bichectomy surgery
Leandro KLÜPPEL,Rafael Baltazar MARCOS,Isabela Almeida SHIMIZU,Marcos André Duarte da SILVA,Ricarda Duarte da SILVA
RGO - Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia. 2018; 66(3): 278
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Reliability of layered closure of oroantral fistula by using buccal fat pad and buccal advancement flap
Mohamed M. Osman,Khaled Hassan
Egyptian Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. 2017; 8(2): 42
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Oroantral Fistula
Sung Jae Heo,Kyung Jin Na,Hyun Soo Cho,Jin Hyun Ryu,Hyun Ho Cho,Jin Hyuk Choi,Dong Hoon Kang,Jung Soo Kim
Korean Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 2016; 59(8): 593
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Long-Term Effectiveness of The Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad (BFP) in The Closure of A Large Oro-Antral Fistula (OAF)
Emad T. Daif
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Rhinosinusitis associated with post-dental extraction chronic oroantral fistula: outcomes of non-surgical management comprising antibiotics and local decongestion therapy
A K Mishra,V R Sinha,A Nilakantan,D K Singh
The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 2016; 130(06): 545
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Odontogenic Sinusitis, Oro-antral Fistula and Surgical Repair by Bichatæs Fat Pad: Literature Review
Gustavo Bravo Cordero,Simona Minzer Ferrer,Lara Fernández
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition). 2016; 67(2): 107
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Use of a palatal pedicle flap for closure of an oroantral fistula
Cláudio MARCANTONIO,Michelle PALMIERI,Daniel Villela GORGA,Magali de Oliveira PEREIRA,Lélis Gustavo NÍCOLI,Waldyr Antônio JORGE
RGO - Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia. 2015; 63(4): 496
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Sinusitis odontogénica, fístula oroantral y su reparación quirúrgica mediante colgajo de bolsa de Bichat: revisión de la literatura
Gustavo Bravo Cordero,Simona Minzer Ferrer,Lara Fernández
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Lateral Oropharyngeal Wall Coverage with Buccinator Myomucosal and Buccal Fat Pad Flaps
Bok Ki Jung,Seung Yong Song,Se-Heon Kim,Young Seok Kim,Won Jai Lee,Jong Won Hong,Tai Suk Roh,Dae Hyun Lew
Archives of Plastic Surgery. 2015; 42(4): 453
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Composite Three-Layer Closure of Oral Antral Communication With 10 Months Follow-Up—A Case Study
Robert J. Weinstock,Levon Nikoyan,Harry Dym
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2014; 72(2)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Double-layered closure of chronic oroantral fistulas using a palatal rotational flap and suturing of the sinus membrane perforation: Is it a successful technique?
Aliaa Adel Sayed,Ghada Amin Ahmed Khalifa,Susan Abd El-Hakim Hassan,Fatma Ibrahim Mohamed
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case Report
   Discussion
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed8879    
    Printed185    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded802    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 11    

Recommend this journal