BIOLOGY
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 9-11 Table of Contents     

Geochemical studies of fluoride and other water quality parameters of ground water in Dhule region Maharashtra, India


H.R. Patel Women's College of Pharmacy, Karwand Naka, Shirpur, Dhule, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication23-Oct-2010

Correspondence Address:
Dilip A Patil
H.R. Patel Women's College of Pharmacy, Karwand Naka, Shirpur, Dhule, Maharashtra - 425 405
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0976-9668.71665

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   Abstract 

This study has been carried out to find out the water pollutants and to test the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes in Dhule and surrounding areas in Maharashtra State in India. The analysis was carried out for the parameters pH, DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (biological oxygen demand), Cl−, NO3−, F−, S 2−, total alkalinity, total solid, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness, calcium, magnesium, carbonate and noncarbonate hardness, and concentrations of calcium and magnesium. These parameters were compared against the standards laid down by World Health Organization (WHO) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for drinking water quality. High levels of NO 3−, Cl−, F−, S 2−, total solid, TDS, TSS, total hardness, magnesium and calcium have been found in the collected samples. From these observations, it has been found that fluoride is present as per the permissible limit (WHO 2003) in some of the villages studied, but both fluoride and nitrate levels are unacceptable in drinking water samples taken from several villages in Dhule. This is a serious problem and, therefore, requires immediate attention. Excess of theses impurities in water causes many diseases in plants and animals. This study has been carried out to find out the water pollutants and to test the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes in Dhule and surrounding areas in Maharashtra.

Keywords: Dhule, fluoride, ground water, nitrate, surface water


How to cite this article:
Patil DA, Deshmukh PK, Fursule RA, Patil PO. Geochemical studies of fluoride and other water quality parameters of ground water in Dhule region Maharashtra, India. J Nat Sc Biol Med 2010;1:9-11

How to cite this URL:
Patil DA, Deshmukh PK, Fursule RA, Patil PO. Geochemical studies of fluoride and other water quality parameters of ground water in Dhule region Maharashtra, India. J Nat Sc Biol Med [serial online] 2010 [cited 2020 Jan 24];1:9-11. Available from: http://www.jnsbm.org/text.asp?2010/1/1/9/71665


   Introduction Top


Ground water comes into contact with various minerals which are soluble in water to varying degrees. The dissolved solutes determine the usefulness of water for various purposes. Ground and surface water attain their chemical characteristics by chemical reactions with solids, i.e., soil sediments and sedimentary rocks. [1] Water being a very good solvent dissolves all kind of impurities (solids, liquids, and gases). Impurities may be organic or inorganic, which is dissolved further. Suspended or colloidal organic impurities are obtained from decomposition of plants and animals, particles suspended in water such as clay, silt, sand, and other solid particles, which absorb or reflect light turbidity. [2] Excess of these impurities causes pollution of water or make it unsafe for drinking purposes including heavy metals like Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn as well as fluoride, nitrates, and chloride. Their excess in water causes many diseases in plants and animals. This study has been carried out to find out the water pollutants and to test the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation purposes in Dhule and surrounding areas in Maharashtra.


   Materials and Methods Top


Experimental

Water samples were collected in polythene bottles as per the standard procedure from few villages in Dhule. Sample bottles were well-washed with distilled water, dried and were stored in refrigerator at 4°C till the analyses were completed. The physicochemical parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid, and alkalinity were analyzed using portable kits at the sampling sites, and rest of the parameters were done following the standard methods APHA (American Public Health Association). [2],[3],[4] Distilled water and analytical reagent grade chemicals were used wherever required.


   Results and Discussion Top


The results of physicochemical characteristics are depicted in [Table 1] and [Table 2]. The decrease and increases in the temperature of the samples analyzed might be due to the low water level, low velocity, atmospheric conditions, and greater solar radiation. The pH values of the samples analyzed were recorded in the range from 7.5 to 8.3, which shows that the samples are alkaline in nature. The dissolved oxygen concentration of samples varied from a minimum of 1.6 mg/l to maximum of 7.3 mg/l. BOD value in the samples ranges from valid 0 to 5.9 mg/l. this difference might be due to the difference in the biological activity at different temperature and strength of the waste. [5]
Table 1: The physicochemical characteristics of various sample stations (site 1-8)

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Table 2: The physicochemical characteristics of various sample stations (site 9-16)

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The values of alkalinity in water samples varied from a minimum of 100 mg/l to maximum of 510 mg/l. Calcium concentration in the samples ranged from 12 to 72 mg/l and magnesium concentration in the samples ranged from 8.9 to 53 mg/l. Calcium is naturally present in water. It may dissolve from rocks such as limestone, marble, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, fluorite, and apatite. The significant increase in the calcium and magnesium concentration might be due to the fact of high evaporating rate or due to the increased rate of decomposition. [6] Calcium is a dietary mineral present in the human body of an amount of about 1.2 kg. No other element is more abundant in the body. Calcium phosphate is a supporting substance, and it causes bone and tooth growth, together with vitamin D. Calcium is also present in muscle tissue and in the blood. It is required for cell membrane development and cell division, and it is partially responsible for muscle contractions and blood clotting. Calcium regulates membrane activity, it assists nerve impulse transfer and hormone release, stabilizes the pH of the body, and is an essential part of conception. In order to stimulate these body functions, a daily intake of about 1000 mg of calcium is recommended for adults. Total hardness of water varied from 70 to 490 mg/l. Hardness is caused due to the presence of calcium and magnesium carbonates and non-carbonates. Calcium hardness was noticed in the range from 30 to 180 mg/l, and the values of magnesium hardness ranges from 10 to 140 mg/l, while the carbonate and noncarbonate hardness ranges from 50 to 180 mg/l and from 0 to 230 mg/l, respectively. There is no adverse effect on the health due to this hardness.

The value of total solids in the water samples varied from a minimum of 365 mg/l to a maximum of 745 mg/l. Total dissolved solids (TDS) from 145 to 385 mg/l, total suspended solids (TSS) from 74 to 490 mg/l, which shows that the value of solids in water is very high. It may be due to the particles suspended in water such as silt, sand, natural/human caused soil erosion and waste discharge.

During the period of the study, the values of chloride ranged from 24 to 277 mg/l, while the permissible limit of chloride prescribed by WHO for drinking water is 200 mg/l. The minimum concentration of chloride may be due to dilution in large amount while high content in the samples may be due to the input of highly soluble chloride salts and high evaporation rate. The values of sulfide varied between a minimum of 1.0 mg/l to a maximum of 1.8 mg/l. Usually, it is not a health-risk at concentrations present in household water, except in very high concentrations. While such concentrations are rare, hydrogen sulfide's presence in drinking water when released in confined areas has been known to cause nausea, illness and, in extreme cases, death. Generally, hydrogen sulfide occurs in concentrations of less than 10 mg/l. Occasionally, the amount goes as high as 50-75mg/l. Hydrogen sulfide is more common to well waters than to surface water supplies. Nitrate in the samples varied from 73 to 145 mg/l. The permissible value of NO3- is 100 mg/l; above this concentration water becomes harmful and causes a disease namely methamoglobinemia in infants a condition known as "blue baby." The infant is being asphyxiated because oxygen cannot be transported by the blood. Prompt medical attention normally results in quick recovery of the infant. The concentration of NO3 - ion increases with the increase of the depth of the ground water because the upper level of NO3 - is consumed by the plants. Fluoride concentration varied in all the water samples from 0.0324 to 1.922 mg/l and was found maximum at site (8) while the permissible limit of fluoride prescribed by WHO for drinking water is 1.45 mg/l. The fluoride levels around 0.5-1.0 mg/l reduce the risk of dental caries, while significantly higher levels may cause skeletal fluorosis, depending on water intake and the fluoride content of the diet.


   Conclusions Top


The problem of fluorosis in Maharashtra has only increased with time despite substantial efforts. The health-related water quality parameters need specific attention. One such health-related constituent of water is fluoride. The health effect of consumption of fluoride through water is serious. The strategic and technological options are available for control of fluoride in drinking water. The objective of community awareness has to be the preparation of community for participation in best utilization of the available water resources. Dilution of fluoride rich water with fluoride free water should be encouraged.

 
   References Top

1.Chandrawat MP, Ojha TN, Yadav RN. Hydrofluoroid problems in and around Ramgarh Town. Indian J Environ Sci 2001;5:103.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Zafar AR. On the ecology of algae in certain ponds of Hyderabad, India. Physicochem Complex Hydrobiologia 1964;23;179.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Chaturvedi S, Kumar D, Singh RV. Study on some Physicochemical characteristics of flowing water of Ganga river at Haridwar. Res J Chem Environ 2003;7:78.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Regina B, Nabi B. Physico-chemical spectrum of the Bhavani River water collected from the Kalingarayan Dam, Tamilnadu. Indian J Environ Ecoplan 2003;7:633.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.APHA (American Public Health Association), American Water Works association and Water Pollution Control Federation, Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste water, 19th ed. New York, U.S.A. 1995.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Sadger P, Gargh SL, Patel AN, Jain A. Use of Different herbs as coagulant and coagulant aid for Water purification. Res J Chem Environ 2002;6:55.  Back to cited text no. 6      



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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