Year : 2010  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-24 Table of Contents     

Anticandidal activity of endemic Salvia potentillifolia Boiss. and Heldr . ex Bentham and Origanum hypericifolium Schwartz and P.H. Davis in Turkey

1 Department of Biology, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey
2 Department of Microbiology, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

Date of Web Publication23-Oct-2010

Correspondence Address:
A Celik
Department of Biology, Pamukkale University, Denizli
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0976-9668.71668

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This study established baseline data on lytic anticandidal activities of endemic species Origanum hypericifolium and Salvia potentillifolia naturally distributed in Denizli and its environment. Stream distillation was used to isolate the unfatty polar part and clinical isolated Candida spp. strains were subcultured to sabouraud dextrose agar. Lytic anticandidal activities of unfatty polar parts were evaluated by enzyme-linked calorimetric method against 93 clinical isolates belonging to Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. Kefyr, and C. parapsilosis. As a result, two (2.15%) strains of C. glabrata among tested pathogenic 93 clinical isolates of Candida strains were found to be sensitive to S. potentillifolai. However, each strain of C. albicans and C. tropicalis was found to be sensitive to O. hypericifolium. Results indicated that O. hypericifolium and S. potentillifolia had a potential of being used in food and medicine because of their anticandidal activity.

Keywords: Anticandidal activity, lytic, Origanum hypericifolium, Salvia potentillifolia, yeast

How to cite this article:
Celik A, Ergin C, Arslan I, Kartal T. Anticandidal activity of endemic Salvia potentillifolia Boiss. and Heldr . ex Bentham and Origanum hypericifolium Schwartz and P.H. Davis in Turkey. J Nat Sc Biol Med 2010;1:22-4

How to cite this URL:
Celik A, Ergin C, Arslan I, Kartal T. Anticandidal activity of endemic Salvia potentillifolia Boiss. and Heldr . ex Bentham and Origanum hypericifolium Schwartz and P.H. Davis in Turkey. J Nat Sc Biol Med [serial online] 2010 [cited 2020 Aug 13];1:22-4. Available from:

   Introduction Top

The genus Origanum L. (Lamiaceae) is represented by 26 taxa in Turkey, including 15 endemic species. [1],[2],[3] Origanum hypericifolium Schwartz and P.H. Davis are endemic species with limited distribution and included in the lower risk and conservation-dependent category in red data book of Turkey. [4] [Figure 1]
Figure 1: Origanum hypericifolium

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The genus Salvia (sage) is an important genus of the Lamiaceae family and comprises about 900 species, widespread throughout the world. Some members of this genus are also cultivated to use as flavoring agents in perfumery, cosmetics as well as in food. There are about 90 species of Salvia in the Turkish flora, of which 45 are endemic. [1]

Candida spp. are important healthcare-associated pathogens especially immunocomprimised host. Antifungal resistance, increasing costs, hospitalization time, and treatment difficulties of candidal infections are worldwide problems. Antifungal strategies are mainly based on targeting molecules on yeast cell wall, inhibition of cytochrome oxidases, antimetabolite effect to nucleus activities, and gene-regulated efflux system blocking. Novel antifungal molecules may help in the treatment of yeast infections. [5],[6],[7]

   Materials and Methods Top

Plant materials

The aerial parts of O. hypericifolium0 were collected during the flowering stage from July to August, 2007, on Mount Sandras (elevation 1860 m), Beyagaç-Denizli, where it is endemic. Dr. Ali Celik further identified all the collected plants. The voucher specimens are deposited at the herbarium of Pamukkale University, Faculty of Science and Art, Biology Department (herbarium no. AΗE 2545). The samples were air-dried and stored in a polyethylene bag until use.


The air-dried and finely ground sample was extracted by using the method described previously (Sokmen, Jones, and Erturk, 1999). The resulting extract (13.11%, w/w) was suspended in water and partitioned with chloroform (CHCI 3 ) to obtain water-soluble (polar) (10.86%, w/w) and water-insoluble subfractions (2.25%, w/w), which were then lyophilized and kept in the dark at +4°C until tested.

Microbial strains

For screening anticandidal activity; Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata strains have been isolated from clinical samples and identified by API 20C AUX (Bio-Mιrieux, France). Each yeast strain was subcultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar for two days at room temperature.

Strain susceptibility of polar parts of plant extract have been tested by rapid yeast lysis assay microtiter method described by Jewell et al.[8] Briefly, each yeast strain was grown in YEPM (1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, and 2% maltose) broth medium at 28°C for 48 h with shaking. Yeasts were centrifuged at 5000 × g for 20 min at 4°C. The supernatant broth was discarded and yeast pellet was suspended in buffered saline gelatin (0.1% gelatin, 0.9 NaCl, 0.03% KH 2 PO 4 , 0.06% Na 2 HPO 4 ). Turbidity of each yeast suspension was adjusted to Mc Farland No.1 standard. Lysis-sensitive yeast cells were freshly tested without stock procedure.

Evaluation of antifungal activity

Undiluted O. hyperificifolium and S. potentillifolia polar parts of plant extract have been tested in separate microtiter plate. Each microtiter plate has been prepared as a total of 100 ml test extract. Following extract preparation in well, 100 ml of the maltase-induced Candida sp. suspensions was added to wells except for controls. The microtiter plates were sealed with polyethylene tape and incubated at 28°C with orbital shaking at 100 r/min. After 30 min of incubation, the film was removed and 40 ml of filter-sterilized, 4 mg p-nitrophenyl-a-d-glucopyranoside/ml in water was added to each well. The plate was resealed and incubated at 37°C without agitation. After 10 min of incubation, 60 ml, 1 M Na 2 CO 3 was added to stop the reaction. Yellow color has been accepted as positive result by unaided eye. Only test extract and only p-nitrophenyl a-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) substrate with test extract (for spontaneous degradation) wells have been accepted as test controls.

   Results and Discussion Top

Anticandidal activity of O. hyperificifolium have been found to two (2.15%) yeast strain (one C. albicans and C. tropicalis). It can be seen from [Table 1] that only two (2.15%) C. glabrata strains have been killed by S. potentillifolia extract.
Table 1: Anticandidal activity of O. hypericifolium and S.potentillifolia

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In this study, lytic antifungal activity from crude extracts of O. hyperificifolium and S. potentillifolia have been described against some Candida species. Only 2.5% of yeast population are not having satisfactory results because of not reflecting wide populations. Antimetobolite activity, gene-regulated efflux systems, and enzymatic inhibition of yeasts by plant extracts may play a crucial role in antifungal effect. However, tested method of antifungal activity is focused on yeast cell lysis. Chemical-genetic relationships of compounds should be investigated with further research. Our results indicate that O. hyperificifolium and S. potentillifolia extract's antifungal activity should be analyzed for activity constituents by chemical analysis for newer molecules to improve the therapy strategies in medicine. [9]

   References Top

1.Davis PH. Flora of Turkey and East Aegean Island. Vol. 7. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 1982 p. 297.   Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Davis PH, Tan K, Mill R. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 10. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 1988 p. 206.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Guner A, Özhatay N, Ekim T, Baser HC. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 11. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press; 2000 p. 207  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Ekim T, Koyuncu M, Vural M, Duman H, Aytac Z, Adiguzel N. Red Data Book of Turkish Plants. Ankara: Bariscan offset; 2000 p. 246.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Miranda LN, van der Heijden IM, Costa SF, Sousa AP, Sienra RA, Gobara S, et al. Candida colonisation as a source for candidaemia. J Hosp Infect 2009;72:9-16.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
6.Sanglard D, Odds FC. Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents: Molecular mechanisms and clinical consequences. Lancet Infect Dis 2002;2:73-85.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
7.Espinel-Ingroff A. Novel antifungal agents, targets or therapeutic strategies for the treatment of invasive fungal diseases: A review of the literature (2005-2009). Rev Iberoam Micol 2009;26:15-22.  Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
8.Sokmen, A., Jones., B.M., Erturk., M. 1999. The in vitro antibacterial activity of Turkish medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 67, 79-86.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Jewell SN, Waldo RH, Cain CC, Falkinham JO. Rapid detection of lytic antimicrobial activity against yeast and filamentous fungi. J Microbiol Methods 2002;49:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 9      


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1]

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